F liliiill! fiiiiii^ iiiilfi m i '' ' 'MnlM The Flag of South Carolina. THE HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA BY WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS EDITED BY MARY C. SIMMS OLIPHANT REVISED EDITION WITH NEW MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR USE IN SCHOOLS GREENVILLE, S. C. 1922 I 1 T^Z. COPYEIGHT, 1922, BY MAEY C. SIMMS OLIPHANT APR 10 ii^:^. ©CI.A661486 TO MY FATHER 1843-1912 • PREFACE The purpose in revising Simms' History of South Carolina was to make the book better suited for study by grade pupils. The book has been entirely re-written and the text greatly simplified. The editor gratefully acknowledges the invaluable aid extended in revising the text by Miss Carol F. Robertson of the Union City Schools, Miss Ina H. McNally of the Sumter City Schools and Miss Octavia Walden, Rural School Supervisor of Spartanburg County. These gifted teachers read and constructively criticized sections of the book while it was in manuscript. The thanks of the editor are rendered to Mr. A. S. Salley, Jr., Secretary of the Historical Commission of South CaroHna, without whose help neither this edition nor previous editions would have been possible. Mr. Salley compiled the list of governors of South Carolina appearing in the appendix. Acknowledgement is also made to Colonel Holmes B. Springs and to Colonel J. M. Johnson for assistance in preparing the last chapter. M. C. S. O. Greenville, S. C. William Gii.more Simms. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I, The French Protestant Colony 1 II. The English Colony at Charles Town 7 III. Growth of the English Colony 15 IV. Quarrels Between Proprietors and People 20 V. Wars in the Province 28 VI. The Pirates 36 VII. The Overthrow of the Proprietors 45 VIII. Under the Rule of the English King 50 IX. The Cherokee War 60 X. Life in the Province 69 XI. Royal Restrictions on Provincial Trade 77 XII. Breach Widens Between King and Carolina 82 XIII. The Province Becomes a State 89 XIV. The Opening of the Revolutionary War 97 XV. British Capture Charles Town 102 XVI. The Rising of the Partisans 106 XVII. The Partisans Turn the Tide 112 XVIII. The Partisans Capture British Posts 123 XIX. Victory for the Partisans 130 XX. South Carolina Becomes a State in the United States. 137 XXI. How the State Developed After the Revolution.... 143 XXII. The War of 1812 and South Carolina Statesmen.. . . 153 XXIII. States' Rights Movement 160 XXIV. South Carolina Secedes from the United States .... 176 XXV. The War Between the Sections Begins 184 XXVI. Second Year of the War — 1862 190 XXVII. Third and Fourth Years of the War — 1863 and 1864 . . 195 XXVIII. Downfall of the Confederacy 204 XXIX. South Carolina Under Radical Government 210 XXX. Overthrow of Radical Government 220 XXXI. Industrial Changes 230 XXXII. Dissatisfaction with the State Government 236 vii viii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE XXXIII. Schools and Colleges 243 XXXIV. War and Progress 252 XXXV. Social and Industrial Development 256 XXXVI. The United States Goes into the World War 261 XXXVII. South Carolina Troops in the World War 270 Appendix: Governors of South Carolina 287 Index 295 CHAPTER I THE FRENCH PROTESTANT COLONY 1. Visits to America. After Columbus discovered America in the year 1492, the strongest nations of Europe all wanted to make settlements and build forts in the New World so that they might own it. England, France and Spain sent men in ships to America to find out about the country. When these men came back, they told wonderful tales of the beauty of the New World, but what they talked most of was the chance of grow- ing rich by finding gold there. They also told about the Indians, a race of people with copper-colored skins, who lived in America. Some of these men who sailed from Europe saw the coast of South Carolina and gave to this part of America several names, among which was "Florida." 2. First Colony in United States. France was the first nation to send men to live in the part of America which is now our own country. This French settlement was made in the year 1561 in what afterward became South Carolina. 3. Why the French Came. The Roman Catholic church was the strong- est church in France. The French Protestants, or Huguenots, did not be- lieve in the Catholic faith, and the Catholics would not let them worship God as they chose. Admiral Coligny of France, who was himself a Protes- tant, got leave from Charles IX, the French king, to send a colony to "Florida," as South Carolina and all this part of America were then called. admiual coligny, ™, . 1 • » • Who sent the French llieir new home m America was to be Colony to Carolina. 2 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA a place in wliieli the French Protestants could worship God in peace. Admiral Coligny selected Jean Ribault, who was an able sea captain and a good Protestant, to take charge of the colony. Two ships were provided in which Ribault and his party of Protestants set sail from France. Entuance to Pout Royal Harbor into Which Ribault Sailed. 4. French Reach Port Royal. In May, 1561, Ribault 's two ships reached the coast of what is now Beaufort County in South Carolina and anchored in a beautiful harbor. To this harbor, ' ' because of the largeness and fairness thereof, ' ' Ribault gave the name of Port Royal, by which name we still call it. The French landed on the northern side of Port Royal harbor. After their long voyage from France, the sight of the great live oaks and cedars filled them with delight. They saw turkeys, quail and other birds in the woods and found that with their nets they could catch great numbers of fish. After they had rested and eaten of the game and fish, the French rowed up the harbor in their small boats. They had gone only a little way when they saw on the shore some Indians who ran into the woods as the boats drew near. The Indians had been cooking a young lucerne (wild cat) and for this reason the French called this place Cape Lucerne. Rowing farther, Ribault and his men HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 3 entered a river. There they saw other Indians, both men and women, half hidden in the woods. These were afraid at first of the white men, but, when Ribault made friendly signs to them, they saw that his men meant no harm and beckoned for them to come ashore. The Indians brought presents of skins, baskets made of palmetto leaves, and a few pearls, which they freely gave to the strangers to show their friendliness. The Indians Welcome Ribault and His Men. 5. Fort Charles Built. Ribault decided to make his settle- ment on one of the islands in Port Royal harbor. The island he chose is now called Parris Island. Here he built a fort of earth and logs in which he placed provisions and powder. Ribault named it Fort Charles in honor of King Charles IX of France. Then Ribault left twenty-six men at the fort under command of Captain Albert, and, after promising to send ships to them, he sailed away to France. 6. Life at Fort Charles. The twenty-six Frenchmen Ribault left at Fort Charles were lazy. Instead of planting grain for themselves, they depended for food upon their Indian neighbors. 4 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Audusta, a powerful Indian chief, was their greatest friend. He invited them to his village and gave them provisions. Before long he had none himself. Then the Frenchmen went to the Indian chief, Couexis, and his brother, Ovade, who generously gave them a supply of corn, beans and meal. The French had hardly returned from their visits to these two chiefs when their fort burned down and all their provisions were lost. The kindly Indians hurried to help them rebuild the fort and to supply them with food again. 7. Troubles among the French. The Indians, lazy them- selves, had planted barely enough corn to last the season. Their gifts to the French used this up, and the Indians were forced to live on roots until harvest time. While the French at Fort Charles were thus hard pressed for food, other troubles started. These began about a common soldier who was hanged without a trial by Captain Albert. This captain had been, from the first, very stern and harsh with his men. "While they were still angry with him for hanging the soldier, he aroused them still further by his treatment of La Chere, a soldier who was a great favorite with all the men. He sent La Chere to an island about nine miles from the fort and left him there to starve. As a result, the other Frenchmen rose suddenly and killed Captain Albert. Then they brought La Chere back from the island where they found him almost dead for want of food. 8. French Leave Fort Charles. The French at Fort Charles began now to long for their homes. No word came from France. They lost hope of ships coming with other settlers and food aboard. They decided finally to leave the New World where, in spite of the kindness of the Indians, they had suffered much from starvation. Consequently, they began to build a small ship in which to sail to France. The tall pines at Port Royal furnished them with resin and moss for calking the ship. The timber and planks they needed they hewed by hand from the trunks of trees. The Indians brought them cords for tackle, and out of their own shirts and linen they made sails. At last HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA The Frenchmen Left at Port Royal Sailed Away in a Boat They Built. the little ship was ready for sea. A fair wind blew, and the French set sail from Port Royal. 9. Voyage to France. They sailed without trouble fully a third of the way across the Atlantic Ocean. Then the wind stopped blow- ing. For three weeks their little vessel scarcely moved. Their food began to give out. Finally, all they had to eat was twelve grains of corn a day. Then they gnawed their shoes and leather jackets. Many of them died. The boat began to leak, too, and those of them who were left had to work night and day bailing the water out to keep the boat from sinking. 10. La Chere's Sacrifice. During all of this suffering, La Chere, the soldier who had been rescued from the island, had tried to keep up their spirits by telling them that they would soon reach land. Once La Chere said that in three days they would see land. At the end of this time, there was no land in sight, and there was no food. The Frenchmen were in despair. La Chere proposed that one of them should die to save the rest. They drew lots to see which it RiBAULT AND AN INDIAN CHIEF. ShOUld bC aud tllC lot fcll tO <¥V^ % HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA him. Without a struggle, this brave fellow bared his neck to the stroke of a knife. His starving comrades greedily drank his blood and divided his flesh among them. They were picked up by an English ship soon aftei*ward. La Chere's sacrifice en- abled some of them to live to see France again. 11. Fort Caroline. Not knowing that the French had left Port Royal, three ships under the command of Rene Laudonniere were sent from France with provisions for them. Laudonniere reached America in 1564, three years after Ribault had built Fort Charles at Port Royal. When he found that Fort Charles had been de- serted, he sailed south down the Atlan- tic coast and built a fort which he named Fort Caroline. The Spaniards, in the meantime, made a settlement at St. Augustine in what is now the State of Florida. The Spaniards claimed the whole country and declared that the French had no right to live at Fort Caroline. The Spaniards were Roman Catholics and hated the French at Fort Caroline, because they were Protestants. Finally, the Spaniards went to the French settlement and killed the French to the last man. Then they placed on a tree a sign which read: ''We do this not to Frenchmen, but to heretics." The French were later avenged by de Gourges, who sailed from France for this purpose. He killed the Catholics at Fort Caroline, and changed their sign to read: "I do this not to Spaniards, or Catholics; but to traitors, robbers and murderers." 12. French Gave Carolina Its Name. The French made no more attempts to plant colonies in this section. They left noth- ing in this part of America except a few names. Their visits resulted in firmly fixing the name "Carolina" on this region. This name they gave it in honor of Charles IX, their king, whose name in Latin was Carolus, from which comes Carolina. Charles IX, The French king for whom Carolina was named. CHAPTER II THE ENGLISH COLONY AT CHARLES TOWN 13. A Gift from the English King. For more than a hundred years after the French left Port Royal, no white men came to settle in Carolina. In 1663, Charles II, king of England, gave Carolina to eight English noblemen. The king's gift in- cluded all of the country lying along the Atlantic coast of Map illustrating the enormous extent of the territory given by Charles II to the Lords Proprietors. The part which afterwards became South Carolina is shown in black. America south of Virginia, where the English had a colony, and north of what is now the State of Florida, where in 1663 the Spaniards were already firmly settled. On the west, Carolina stretched to the Pacific Ocean, then called the "South Seas." This vast country which Charles II gave to the eight lords in- cluded the land in which lie the present states of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia on the Atlantic coast and all states west of them to the Pacific Ocean. The eight noblemen who were thus favored by the king were: Anthony, Lord Ashley; the Earl of Clarendon; the Duke of Albemarle; William, Earl of Craven; John, Lord Berkeley; Sir George Carteret; Sir William Berkeley; and Sir John Colleton. These lords were 7 8 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA friends of Charles II and, by taking his part against his enemies, they had helped him get back the throne of England, He rewarded them with the gift of Carolina, 14. Rights from the King. In giving Carolina to the eight noblemen, King Charles II stated plainly in the charter, under which they were to own the land, that people who went to live in Carolina should have certain rights. In the first place, no laws were to be made for Carolina, unless the peo- ple consented and, for the purpose of making laws, the people were to be called together from time to time. In the sec- ond place, King Charles said that people were to be allowed to worship God as they chose in Carolina, and must not be forced to worship Him according to any one faith against their wills. Moreover, the king gave the eight owners of Caro- lina the power to give titles of nobility to any persons in Carolina they thought fit to receive them, just as he himself did in England. 15. The Lords Proprietors. The eight English noblemen formed a company which they called the "Lords Proprietors." They hoped to make money by sending settlers to Carolina and renting the land to them. These lords, as the name of their company shows, were the proprietors or owners of Carolina and, when they decided to plant a colony there, they expected to enrich themselves by doing so. 16. The Fundamental Constitutions. The Lords Proprie- tors made in London laws for the government of the colony before sending settlers to Carolina. By doing this, the Proprie- tors tried to take away one of the rights given by the king to peo- ple who might go to Carolina. As there were no settlers yet in Carolina, they could not consent, of course, to the laws the Charles II, The English king who gave Carolina to eight noblemen in 1CG3. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA A Ship of About the Year 1070. Proprietors now made. John Locke, a great English philosopher, wrote these laws for the Proprietors, and called them the "Fundamental Constitutions." The laws provided that the noblemen to be appointed in Carolina were to be called Land- graves and Caciques, Landgrave being an old German title and Cacique the Indians' name for their chiefs. A large amount of land was to go to each Land- grave and Cacique under Locke's laws and their titles were to pass down to their oldest sons. These laws for Caro- lina also provided for setting up eight Supreme Courts and for the meeting of a Parliament, a law-making body like our present day legislature. 17. The English Settlement. In 1669, six years after Charles II gave Carolina to the Lords Proprietors, these noble- men fitted out three ships to make a settlement at Port Royal. They gave the command to Joseph West and directed him to go first to the Island of Barbadoes, an English settlement in the West Indies. At Barbadoes, he was to see Sir John Yeamans and take further orders from him. When the ships reached Barbadoes, Sir John Yeamans went with them to Bermuda, and there appointed William Sayle to be governor of the new colony. Sayle had been a sea cap- tain. When Yeamans made him governor, he was quite old and feeble. On arriving at Port Royal, Governor Sayle was met by an Indian chief, the Cacique of Kiawah, who told him Map showing the original site of Charles "^^^ ^^^ fierce Wcsto Town on the west side of Ashley River. Indians who then lived 10 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA around Port Royal would kill any white settlers. He said that the Westoes were cannibals, and advised the English to go to his country to live. Sayle consented and in April, 1670, landed on the western shore of the river in the Kiawahs' country. The English called their settlement Charles Town in honor of the king of England and named the river, the Ashley, after Anthony, Lord Ashley. 1 8. Building Charles Town. The colonists, with the help of some negro slaves they had brought with them, began immedi- ately to build forts, to lay out streets for a town and to put up houses. The country of the Kiawah Indians was good. Deer, turkeys, rabbits, turtles and fish were to be had in plenty. However, the English suffered many hardships. They had to cut the timber for their houses and clear away the thick woods before they could plant crops. In the low, flat country along the Ashley River, the climate was hot and they suffered much during the summer after they landed from their hard labor in the sun. ig. Indians of Carolina. At the time the English came, twenty-eight Indian tribes are said to have been living in Caro- ,^.^_^___, lina. These tribes vN^^? ^ r. .. \ \ could have put alto- gether 50,000 fierce warriors in the field. Fortunately for the settlers, these Indian tribes were so busy fighting among them- selves that they did not unite against the whites. The Indians in Carolina lived in log houses which they covered with woven grass matting to keep Map showing about where the Indian Tribes lived in Carolina when the English settlers came. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 11 out the rain and cold. Their only roads were a few paths through the forests, but they traveled a great deal by water in canoes which they made by hollowing out the trunks of large trees with fire and sharp stones. The Indians planted a little corn. Their chief food was game from the forests and fish from the streams. For weapons, they had at first only bows and arrows and stone hatchets. The skins of the animals they killed with these provided them with the few clothes they wore. The Indian women did all of the work, while the men spent their time in fighting, hunting, fishing, or in idleness. 20. Danger from Indians, The Kiawah Indians, whose chief invited the English to his country, were always friendly to the settlers at Charles Town, but they were not strong enough to protect them from other warlike Indian tribes who wanted to drive the colonists away. The warlike Westo and Stono Indians, as they were nearest Charles Town, were the most troublesome. They would hide in the thick woods and let fly their arrows at all settlers who came near them. These un- friendly Indian neighbors forced the colonists to stand always ready to fight. While some of the English slept, others kept watch. If a man cut a tree in the forest, he was protected by another man who stood near with a gun in his hand. So fierce and cunning were the Westo and Stono Indians, the settlers at Charles Town did not dare lay aside their arms even for a moment to gather oysters on the shores of the creeks. Fear of the Indians kept them out of the woods. But for the fish in the Ashley River, they would have starved probably before they raised their first crop. 21. The Temporary Laws. The colonists at Charles Town found that the Fundamental Constitutions did not meet the needs of so simple a settlement as theirs. There were not more than 200 people in the colony. The Lords Proprietors soon sent out a set of Temporary Laws for them to use until more people came to Carolina. 22. Governor Sayle's Death. Governor Sayle died in 12 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA March, 1671, from the effects of hard work, exposure and old age. A few days before his death he resigned as governor, and at a meeting of the Council nominated Joseph West to act in his place until the Proprietors should appoint another governor. 23. The First Indian War. While West was acting as gov- ernor, the Kussoe Indians, urged on by the Spaniards in Florida, became so bold that West declared war against them. Going into the Kussoes' coun- try, the English took many of them prisoners and conquered the tribe. This was the first of many wars with the Indians in Carolina. 24. Move to Oyster Point. In 1672, the Proprietors ap- pointed Sir John Yeamans gov- ernor of Carolina. They com- manded him to lay off a new town and move the colony there. The site of Charles Town on the west bank of the Ashley River was too low and unhealthy and could not be reached by large vessels at low tide. A neck of land called Oyster Point was chosen for the site of the new town. At the tip of this point of land, the Ashley met the Etiwan River, which the English renamed the Cooper. The new town on Oyster Point they also called Charles Town. 25, Proprietors Angered. The Proprietors now quarreled with Governor Yeamans, because he had gone several thousand dollars into debt. He had used the money for building forts, A Carolina Indian. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 13 mounting cannon, arming the men and improving the new Charles Town. The Proprietors wanted to be repaid the money they had spent on the settlement of Carolina and demanded that the colonists send them ship- loads oftim- ber. Unless the timber was sent, they said they would not send any more powder and provisions to the colonists. The people still looked to England for much of their food because they had not yet cleared enough land to plant all they needed and un- friendly Indians often laid waste their crops. 26. The O'Sullivan Riot. The provisions did not come from England, and the colonists were in despair. In their dis- content, they started a riot in Charles Town under the leader- ship of Florence O'Sullivan who commanded the island in the harbor which now bears his name (Sullivan's Island). The riot threatened the ruin of the colony, but Governor Yeamans quieted the people and sent ships to Virginia and Barbadoes for food. Just at this time, a ship arrived from England bringing new settlers and food. This cheered the people to new efforts to make the settlement a success. 27. Spaniards Attempt Harm. The Spaniards in Florida heard of the riot in Carolina. They th6ught it a good time to attack Charles Town and take Carolina for Spain. They set out Moving From the First Site of Charles Town to Oyster Point. 14 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA to destroy the settlement and had reached St. Helena Island when the ship arrived at Charles Town with the new settlers. Governor Yeamans then sent a ship with fifty men to St. Helena. The Spaniards went back in haste to St. Augustine without waiting to fight. CHAPTER III • GROWTH OF THE ENGLISH COLONY 28. Disturbing Conditions. Governor Yeamans was suc- ceeded by Joseph West, who served faithfully and well for eight years as governor. West found it hard, however, to keep the people satisfied. While Yeamans was governor, the Lords Proprietors, thinking that the colony was large enough to be governed by the Fundamental Constitutions, had put these laws into force. The people were discontented because this was done, and divided into two parties. One party was made up of the gov- ernor, the Council and the officers, all of whom were sworn to obey the Proprietors and carry out their laws. The other party was made up of the people who felt that the colony was still too small to be governed by the laws in the Fundamental Constitutions. 29. Religious Troubles. Besides the disagreement over the Fundamental Constitutions, the people in Carolina were divided as to their religions. The Proprietors had made the Province a Church of England (Episcopal) settlement. Many of the settlers did not belong to the Church of England. These were called "Dissenters." They were a sober, serious people and frowned upon all gaiety and amusements. The people who belonged to the Church of England were called "Cavaliers." The Dissenters thought that the Cavaliers dressed too gaily and spent too much time on amusements. The Cavaliers, in their turn, made fun of the Dissenters. The Council and officers who held the power in Carolina were Cavaliers. The Dissenters claimed that they were neglected and had no rights. In short, all of the troubles which the people had in England at this time over religious questions were renewed in Carolina. 30. Taking the Land. Because the king of England had 15 16 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA given the land in Carolina to the Lords Proprietors, these noble- men felt that the Indians had no right to it, despite the fact that the Indians had lived on the land for hundreds of years before the English ever came. The Proprietors told the colonists not to buy land from the Indians, but to take it and drive the Indians away. This caused so much hard feeling among the red men that later, Anthony, Lord Ashley, the oldest and wisest English Traders Dealing With Indians. of the Proprietors, changed the order and commanded the colonists to buy the land from the Indians. Even this Avas not fair for, when they bought from the red men, they gave them in return only trinkets and beads, things of little value. 31. New Settlers Come. Immigrants began to come to Carolina in small parties from England and from Barbadoes and other places in the West Indies. The Proprietors were pleased, and encouraged new settlers to come by promising them many favors, especially if enough of them came together to form a town. A number of French Protestants were given land free. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 17 The Proprietors expected them to make silk in Carolina as they had done in France and to grow olives and grapes in the rich soil of the Province. 32. Growth of Charles Town. At this time, there were about a hundred houses in Charles Town and more were being built. Sixteen ships came regularly to trade with the people of the town. The population was between 1,000 and 1,200. The arrival of new settlers was rapidly increasing the population. In Charles Town the first church was built about 1682, or about thirteen years after the first colonists came. It was called the English church. 33. Advantages of Prov- ince. The colonists en- joyed good health in Caro- lina. A letter written at this time by a colonist says that the little children in the Province were rosy-cheeked Indian hunter. and plump. The land was rich, producing with little labor, after the woods were cut down, crops of rice, wheat, rye, oats and peas. Crops of corn were harvested twice a year. From the corn, the colonists made bread, beer and strong brandy. The number of cattle, hogs and sheep increased greatly. Because of its mild winters, the climate suited the negro slaves, who by this time were quite numerous. Settlers coming from the West Indies usually brought their slaves with them. The hunting in the forests around Charles Town was good. The richer colonists hired Indian hunters to supply their tables with deer and other game. It was easy to make a living in Carolina. In fact, the colonists' crops were so large that they shipped grain to Barbadoes and Jamaica where they exchanged it for sugar, rum and molasses. 34. The Indian Trade. The first colonists who grew rich in Carolina made their money by trading with the Indians. The Proprietors tried for a time to carry on this trade through 18 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA private agents so that they, instead of the colonists, would profit. But they were unable to prevent the people of Carolina from dealing with the Indians. The colonists sold in England great quantities of furs and skins for which they had given the In- dians guns, brandy, beads and trinkets. This trade with the Indians produced far more wealth in Carolina at this time than farming. 35. Indian and Negro Slaves. The Proprietors had given the colonists permission to sell as slaves all Indian prisoners of war. The Carolinians found this an easy and profitable way to get rid of their red-skinned enemies. Many of the Indians, taken in fights, were sent as slaves to the West Indies. In return for the Indian slaves, the colonists received negro slaves from the West Indies to work the rich fields in Carolina. When they sold Indians as slaves, the colonists were not troubled with any thought of wrong ; for, at this time, by the rules of war, prisoners were looked upon as the property of the captors to do with as they pleased. 36. Pirates Encouraged. When the English settled Caro- lina, King Charles II encouraged piracy, because the lawless sea robbers could be of service to him by plundering the Spanish settlements in Florida and elsewhere. The pirates proved such useful allies that King Charles favored them in many ways. He actually made a knight pf^M^f^W Pirates in CnAULEs Town. of Henry Morgan, one of the worst of the sea rob- bers. With Charles so openly favoring the pi- rates, the Carolinians often took advantage of the help the sea robbers could give them against their deadly foes, the Spaniards, in Florida. This friendship with the pirates might have HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 19 kept up indefinitely had the pirates plundered only the Span- iards. But they began to rob merchant vessels of England, too, and tlie English Board of Trade complained to the Lords Pro- prietors that the Carolinians were encouraging the buccaneers. 37. New Laws. The Parliament, or legislature, met in Carolina at the end of 1682. At this Parliament, laws were passed for establishing a militia and for building roads through the forests. Laws were also enacted to punish swearing and drunkenness. 38. West Removed. At this time, the Proprietors, without good reason, removed Governor West from ofi&ce although he had served the Province ably for eight years. Joseph Morton was made governor in West's place. CHAPTER IV QUARRELS BETWEEN PROPRIETORS AND PEOPLE 39. Cause of Strife. The Lords Proprietors often changed the laws without the consent of the people of the Province. They did this despite the fact that the king had plainly stated that no laws for the Province were to be made unless the people consented. Yet, almost every time a ship from England reached Charles Town, it brought news that the Proprietors had made some new law for the people to obey or had changed some of the existing laws. This very naturally angered the people of Caro- lina, and made them bitter against the Lords Proprietors. 40. Counties Formed. By order of the Proprietors, the Province of Carolina was divided into three counties. These were Berkeley County, which included Charles Town; Craven "'"^ ff •^'"^[ro^^T'^^ \m^. k X. ^^^ Colleton ^^:s<^""l^ -J^sySv County ^JT^a v^^ County (Til II ii .^ -^ ColUtVH Inkt ^^••Wft^-^-"^ ' Map showing part of tho Low-Cnnnlry in the rrr)vin(0 of Carolina about the time wh(Mi the Lords Proprietors ordered it divided into counties. 20 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 21 County, to the north of Berkeley; and Colleton County, to the south of Berkeley. Port Royal was in Colleton County. There were only a few scattered settlers along the shores of some rivers and streams near the coast in Craven County. 41. Unfair Election. The Parliament, or legislature, was, at this time, composed of twenty members, besides those of the Council. The Proprietors said that ten of these members must be elected from Berkeley County and ten for Colleton County. There were too few settlers in Craven County for it to have any representatives in Parliament. The election was held in Charles Town. The people in Berkeley elected all of the twenty mem- bers, and left out Colleton. This enraged the Proprietors when they heard of it, and they ordered the Parliament dissolved. 42. Foreign Debts. Before the members of Parliament returned to their homes, they passed several important laws. One of these laws made it illegal to prosecute a colonist for fail- ing to pay foreign debts. This meant that any debts the colon- ists had made in England or other European countries, before settling in Carolina, would be cancelled. The Proprietors, dis- pleased at this, declared that the law was unjust and contrary to the king's honor. 43. Scots at Port Royal. During Morton's term as gover- nor of the Province a party of Scots came to Port Royal which the French under Ribault had found so fair when they settled there in 1561. The Scotch colony was led by Lord Cardross, a nobleman of Scotland, who left his native land because he was not allowed freedom of religion there. In selecting Port Royal as the place to make their homes, the Scots forgot that the Spaniards at St. Augustine would be near and cruel neighbors, ready to pounce on any unprotected settlement. 44. New Governor Comes. Morton was having a more and more difficult time as governor of Carolina, because the interests of all of the colonists were not the same as those of the Pro- prietors from whom he received his instructions and to whom he had sworn obedience. Then, too, in the Province itself, some 22 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA of the people took the part of the Proprietors while the others wanted more liberties and fewer laws. Governor Morton was between two fires. The Proprietors, disappointed because he did not carry out their instructions to the letter, removed Morton from office and appointed as governor Sir Richard Kyrle of Ireland. The Proprietors believed that Sir Richard, who had never been in Carolina and had no friends there, would follow their instructions and enforce their laws, without being in- fluenced by those colonists who wanted more rights. 45. West Leaves Carolina. Sir Richard died soon after he reached the Province. Joseph West was then made governor for the third time. During his two former terms, he had by his faithfulness, goodness and wisdom done more for Carolina than any other gov- ernor. Yet twice the ungrateful Pro- prietors had removed him for no reason except to give the office of governor to men of more wealth and prominence. West's third term as governor lasted less than a year. He had trouble from the very beginning of his term. The Proprietors first demanded that he make the people pay rents to them in money instead of in crops. Money was very scarce in the Province, and the people saw no reason why they should send it to England to pay rent instead of sending parts of their crops which the Proprietors could sell in England for money. Along with the demand to pay their rent in money, the Pro- prietors sent a new set of laws for the Province which repealed all existing laws. This caused so much strife and discontent that even the wisdom of Governor West could not overcome it. This good governor resigned his office and left Carolina in the sum- mer of 1685. 46. Trouble over New Laws. The members of Parliament, William, Earl of Crave x One of the Lords Pro- prietors. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 23 which a little later was named the ' ' Assembly, ' ' were called to- gether and asked to agree to the new set of laws. Almost two- thirds of the members refused. These were asked to resign. They did so and went to their homes protesting against the in- justice and misrule of the Proprietors. 47. The King's Revenue Officer. Charles II had died, and his brother, James II, sat on the throne of England. King James in 1685 sent to Carolina an officer called the Collector of the King's Revenue. The duty of this officer was to collect taxes for the king on goods shipped to the Province and to see that all goods shipped for sale to the Province or out of the Province were carried in English ships manned by English sailors. He was also to see that cotton, indigo and sugar (later rice was added) were not sold by the colonists to any country except England or her provinces. The people seriously objected to this interference with their trade. So they paid no attention to the Collector and carried on their business as they had before he came. The Collector complained of this treatment and wrote to England that the independent spirit among the people would in time bring about rebellion. As a matter of fact, laws like those the Collector tried to enforce did cause the Revolutionary War, a rebellion which made South Carolina and other provinces in America independent. 48. Spaniards Destroy Scotch Colony. In 1686, the Spaniards of St. Augustine fell sud- denly upon the Scots at Port Royal and killed a great number of them. They took others cap- tive and only a few escaped to Charles Town. The Spaniards, burning houses and wasting crops as they went, also visited Edisto Island. Here they burned the plantations of Governor Morton and others. Then they hastily retreated to their ships before men could be got together to fight them. Spanish Soldier. 49. Chance of Revenge Denied. The 24 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA colonists, many of whom were still forced to fight the Indians as they had done when they first came, were aroused by the killing of the Scots at Port Royal and wished to rush to arms against the Spaniards. Preparations were begun to invade Florida and attack St, Augustine, but in the midst of them Governor Joseph Morton, who had been reappointed after West left, died. James Colleton soon reached Carolina, bringing his commission as governor. He stopped all preparations for the attack on Florida, threatening to hang anyone who defied him. The Proprietors gave their approval to Colleton's action. The colonists were indignant. They felt that the Province was dishonored in not avenging the dead Scots of Port Royal. 50. Proprietors Fear King. The real reason for breaking up the plan to attack Florida was that King James II of England was at this time friendly with Spain. The Proprie- tors were afraid that if they allowed the colonists to fight the Spaniards it would anger King James. There had already been trouble between the Lords Proprietors and the king, because the people of Carolina had refused to obey the Collector of the King's Revenue. The Proprietors feared that, were the king displeased again, he would take Carolina away from them. Nat- urally, they did not want to lose this Province which was grow- ing so rich that it promised great wealth to them if they could continue to receive the rent from the lands on which the colonists lived. 51. Discontent Grows. The colonists, displeased at Colleton for stopping the attack on Florida, grew bitter against him when he enforced the laws of the Proprietors to the letter. He made the people pay rent in money. This and other acts of his led to rioting. When Governor Colleton tried to call out the militia to break up the rioting, the people were enraged almost to the point of rebellion. Rebellion, however, did not actually come, Seth Sothell succeeded Colleton as governor, 52. Grateful for Rice. While Sothell was governor, John Thurber, a retired sea captain living in New England, asked the HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 25 Assembly to give him a sum of money for the great service he had done Carolina when a ship of his brought some seed rice to Charles Town. Grateful to the sea captain, the Assembly voted him money. In 1691, money had also been voted to Peter Jacob Guerard, who had made a machine which successfully took the husk off of rice, making it possible to prepare it for market quickly in quantities. It is certain that rice had been grown in the Province for a number of years before Guerard invented his machine for husking it. It is believed that Thurber brought his seed rice from the Island of Madagascar on the east coast of Africa. It was probably of the variety known as ' ' gold rice, ' ' because of its yellow husk. In time, gold rice, grown in the fresh water marshes on the coast of Carolina, was recognized as the best in the world. Vast fortunes were made by the rice planters. 53. Province Discontented. Sothell was accused of enrich- ing himself at the people's expense while governor, and was called to England for investigation of the charges. Colonel Philip Ludwell of Virginia became governor in his place. Both the people and Proprietors soon grew displeased with Ludwell. The Proprietors removed him from office and appointed Thomas Smith as governor. The colonists were so discontented and so bitter against the Proprietors and their laws that Smith found it impossible to govern. He wrote to the Proprietors asking them to appoint some one else and told them in his letter that, unless one of the Proprietors came to Carolina and settled the disputes with the people, he and many others would leave the Province. 54. People Quieted for a Time. Without carrying out his threat, Thomas Smith died in 1694, while still governor. The Proprietors, however, adopted Smith's wise suggestion and sent out as governor one of their number, John Archdale, who had bought the share of Sir William Berkeley. Archdale was a Quaker. He made a good governor and ruled the Province in peace. When he was ready to leave, the people gave him their 26 HISTOEY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Anthony, Lord Ashley, The wisest of the Lords Proprietors thanks which they had never offered any other governor. Arch- dale made the members of the militia much better soldiers. He got the friendship of the Indians and opened communications with the Spaniards. This improved the trade of the Province. But the term served by the wise Archdale as governor proved merely a lull in the discontent in Carolina. The real differences between the Proprietors and the people were not by any means settled by the Quaker Proprietor. Joseph Blake became gov- ernor after Archdale left. 55. Free Library. While Blake was governor in 1698, a free library was established for the citizens in Charles Town. It was the first of its kind in America. The opening of the library showed that the Carolinians, despite their troubles, were making progress and proves also that many of the early settlers were people of culture who were eager to improve their minds even while undergoing the hardships of a pioneer life. 56. King's Officer Complains. The Collector of the King's Revenue now urged the king of England to take the Province away from the Lords Proprietors. The Collector said that the colonists ignored him completely ; that they traded with whom and how they pleased without obeying the king's laws ; that they were still friendly with the pirates, so friendly, in fact, that it was almost impossible to convict a man of piracy in the courts of Carolina. This was not true, however, as many pirates were convicted. 57. Disasters in the Province. During this period, the Province was overtaken by many disasters. A fearful hurricane blew down nearly all the houses in Charles Town, and the force of the wind drove the sea over the fallen houses, drowning many people and sweeping away much property. This hurricane was HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 27 followed by a fire which burned down many of the houses re- built after the storm. Then smallpox, a dreaded disease in those days, carried death to many homes in Carolina. Scarcely had the colonists begun to breathe freely after all these evils, when yellow fever broke out. All of the public officers and one- half the members of the legislature died of yellow fever as well as a great number of other colonists. Few families in Carolina escaped unharmed by some of these disasters. The people were in despair, and many thought of leaving the Province which God seemed to have marked for every sort of disaster. CHAPTER V WARS IN THE PROVINCE 58. Attack on Spaniards. Upon Governor Blake's death in 1700, James Moore acted as governor until the Proprietors ap- pointed a man to fill the place. England and Spain had become unfriendly again. So Moore prepared to punish the Spaniards at St. Augustine for killing the Scots at Port Royal. He knew that now the Proprietors would not object as they had done a few years before when the Carolinians wanted to make the attack. The colonists forgot their troubles with the Proprietors in planning to march against the Spaniards, whom they hated, A few prudent Carolinians thought that the Province was still too weak to go to war, but the vast majority of the people were eager to fight. Money was raised to arm soldiers and equip ships. Six hundred men were taken into the militia companies. Indians were armed to help. Merchant vessels were fitted out to carry men to St. Augustine. In September, 1702, all things being ready, Governor Moore sailed from Port Royal with some troops, while Colonel Robert Daniell, a brave soldier, led a party of militia and Indians to attack St. Augustine by land. 59. Carolinians Defeated. As the colonists had not made a secret of their plans, the Spaniards had every opportunity to prepare for the attack on their city. They laid away enough food for four months in their strong castle at St. Augustine, and sent to the West Indies for the Spanish fleet. When Moore and Daniell reached the city, they threw the militia and Indians around the castle and tried to batter down its walls with cannon they had brought. They soon found that the walls were too strong, Moore then sent Daniell in a vessel to Jamaica for large cannon, while he with the troops kept the castle surrounded. During Daniell 's absence, a Spanish vessel appeared and Moore, 28 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 29 leaving his ships in the harbor, retreated with his men by land. Daniell, upon liis return from Jamaica, narrowly escaped cap- ture by tlie Spaniards, This unwise expedition left tlie Province with a large and burdensome debt. 60. Appalachians Punished. Moore ceased to act as gover- nor when Sir Natlianiel Jolmson arrived in Carolina, with a commission as governor from the Proprietors. Moore persuaded Governor Johnson to let him attack the Appalachian Indians, who lived in what is now the State of Georgia. Moore wanted to wipe out the stain the defeat at St. Augustine had left on his reputation. The Appalachians, urged on by the Spaniards, had been most unfriendly to the people in Carolina. Johnson decided to let Moore punish the red men if he could. Moore raised some troops and, at their head, marched into the heart of the wild country of the Appalachians. With fire and sword, he struck terror into the souls of the Indians, of whom he is said to have killed 800 besides capturing many more and burning some of their towns. 61. French Attack Charles Town. France and Spain were at this time at war with England. These two nations planned to attack Charles Town, because it was an English settlement. In August, 1706, a French fleet under Monsieur Le Feboure arrived. Charles Town had been prepared in every possible way to withstand the attack. A lookout had been set on Sullivan's Island, and five separate smokes, raised by the look- out, told the people of the city the num- ber of vessels in the French fleet. Yel- low fever was raging in Charles Town when the French fleet appeared. Many of the citizens had left for their planta- tions to escape the disease. On the ap- sin Nathaniel Johnson, pearance of the French ships. Colonel Who rofused to surrender tiT-iT t-.i CaroUna to Le Feboure. William Rhctt put the men of the toWll 30 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA under arms. Governor Johnson, returning from his plantation, called on the friendly Indians for help. Men from all over the Province came to the aid of Charles Town. Cannon were put on board such ships as happened to be in the harbor, and the command of the little fleet was given to Colonel Rhett. 62. The Demand for Surrender. Meanwhile, the French ships anchored near Sullivan's Island, out of range of the cannon of the forts in Charles Town. Le Feboure sent a messenger with a flag of truce to Governor Johnson. The messenger was blind- folded and carried from fort to fort. While in a fort, the bandage was removed from his eyes, and he was allowed to see the troops. By shifting the troops hastily from one fort to an- other, the French messenger was led to believe that many more men were defending the town than was really the case. Le Fe- boure 's messenger demanded of Governor Johnson that he sur- render Charles Town and the Province of Carolina to the king of France and told him that he would be given but an hour in which to make his reply. "I do not need a minute," answered Governor Johnson. "I hold this country for Queen Anne of England. I am ready to die, but not to deliver up my trust," The messenger returned to Le Feboure with this spirited reply and the false news that there were many soldiers in the forts of Charles Town. 63. French Retreat. Colonel Rhett then moved down the harbor with his little fleet to attack the French vessels. Le Feboure did not wait for the attack. By swifter sailing, he got his ships out of the harbor and escaped before a shot could be fired. 64. Change in Governors. In 1710, Edward Tynte suc- ceeded Sir Nathaniel Johnson as governor. Tynte died shortly after his arrival in the Province, and Robert Gibbes held the office until Charles Craven, whom the Proprietors appointed to succeed Tynte, arrived to take the place, 65. A Free School. The year 1710 is a date to be remem- bered, because in that year the Assembly passed a law provid- c^fAjjiprM HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 31 ing for founding and building a free school at Charles Town. Previously, the only children who could get an education were those whose parents were rich enough to pay schoolmasters. But, with the opening of the free school, a start was made toward enabling poor children to learn to read and write. The Assembly passed the law, because some good people who had died in Charles Town left sums of money to be used to found a free school. /) ^ 66. The Two Carolinas. Jt~f // J Several years previous to 1710, )/ ^ / the name "North Carolina" was ^ used for the northern part of the (f^'^^i Province of Carolina which lay (j r . nearest to Virginia, and the name /( /X ^ ^ j^ /f "South Carolina" for the south- M/^ ^^^V^e^A^ ern part of the Province out of J^P /7/i/-fx.f;f^^ which were afterwards made the l^ Iff Uk State of South Carolina and the State of Georgia. The Province / //f7/^/^ of Carolina was not divided by ^ ^ ^^ ^^ '' ^0^^— C — the Proprietors into the two prov- Jltxj /o^cf^^ inces of North and South Caro- ^ lina until 1713, but these two names for the two parts of the Province gradually came into ^'"''"''''pHoL^ETons" ^'"'"''^ general use before that time. 67. Aid to North Carolina. Some of the Indians in North Carolina went on the warpath in 1711 and mur- dered a number of colonists. South Carolina was called upon for help. Colonel John Barnwell of South Carolina with a force of thirty-three white men and 495 Indians was sent to aid the North Carolinians, who were very hard pressed by the Tuscarora Indians. Barnwell and his men had to march through 32 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA a wilderness of unbroken forest, deep swamps and tangled thickets, crossed only by Indian trails, as no roads connected the northern and southern parts of Carolina in those days. Barn- well overcame these difficulties and, reaching North Carolina, he severely punished the Tuscaroras. In one battle, he killed 300 of them and captured 100 more. At last he attacked one of the Indian towns on the Neuse River and, after killing a number of the savages, he forced the others to ask for peace. Then he returned to South Carolina with his men. 68. Beaufort Town. The Lords Proprietors gave orders in 1711 for the building of Beaufort Town near Port Royal, where, twenty-five years earlier, the Scots under Cardross had been murdered by the Spaniards and where the French Protestants under Ribault had landed in 1561. The town was named for the Duke of Beaufort. It became in time the richest town of its size in America, due largely to the money made by its citizens from rice planting. 69. The Yemassees. A large and powerful Indian tribe, the Yemassees, owned large tracts of land around Port Royal near where Beaufort Town was to be built. They had been friends with the Carolinians for years and had helped them fight the Spaniards and other Indians and had been ready to help them fight the French under Le Feboure who, as we have seen, sailed away without attacking Charles Town. While Gov- ernor Craven was ruling South Carolina, the Yemassees began to complain that the colonists were taking too much of their land and driving away the deer and other game. These Indians also took a dislike to the white traders, who came to their villages and bought skins and furs from them. These traders, the Yemassees said, did not treat them fairly. The Spaniards probably did a great deal to cause this ill-feeling among the Indians in a Canoe. Yemassees as they still HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 33 wanted to destroy Carolina and take the Province for their king and v/ere bitterly opposed to the building of Beaufort Town. 70. Province in Great Danger. The cunning Yemassees suddenly fell on the plantations near Pocotaligo and murdered more than ninety settlers who were not able to defend them- selves against this unexpected attack. Joined by Creek and Indians Building Canoes From the Trunks of Trees. Appalachian Indians, the Yemassee chiefs divided their warriors into bands, one of which attacked Port Royal and the other St. Bartholomew's Parish. The Indian warriors were about 7,000 in number. So fierce and bold were they that it seemed likely that they would wipe out the Province of Carolina. Besides the 7,000 Indians in arms, word came to the colonists that all of the Yemassees from Florida to Cape Fear in North Carolina were banded together and marching to join those who were already on the warpath. 71. Craven Prepares for Attack. Governor Craven acted 34 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA now with great spirit and bravery. He would not let ships sail from Charles Town, and thus kept all the sailors on them to defend the Province. He also saved the food the ships would have carried away. He seized guns and powder wherever he found them and armed a force of trusty negro slaves to assist the men in the militia companies. Craven also asked aid from England, but this was refused him. The Proprietors, fearing that the Province would be destroyed, tried to get help from the English Board of Trade, but the Board said that if the Pro- prietors could not protect their own Province they ought to give it up. 72. Fighting the Yemassees. While Gover- nor Craven was hurriedly making ready to meet the Indians, the Yemassees in scattered bands ad- vanced upon Charles Town from different direc- tions, scalping and killing all the settlers they could find. Thomas Parker, captain of a militia company, met a band of the savages and, in the fight that followed, he and many of his men were killed. At Goose Creek, near Charles Town, about 400 of the Indians surrounded a rude fort in which seventy white men and forty negro slaves had taken shelter. These stoutly fought the Indians off for a time, but when the Indians asked for peace, the Carolinians foolishly listened and opened the gate of their fort. The tricky Indians entered the fort and without warning butchered the white men and negroes. 73. Carolinians Defeat Yemassees. Governor Craven raised a force of 1,200 men and marched out of Charles Town to fight the Indians in the woods and swamps. The men under Craven knew how to fight the Indians and the war whoop of the savages had no terrors for them. Advancing from Charles Town, they met the Indians at their camp, where a desperate fight took place. The Yemassees were driven from their camp. The Carolinians followed them and kept close at their heels until Indian Child. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 35 they swept them from the country. The Yemassees were shel- tered by their friends, the Spaniards, within the walls of St. Augustine. The flight of the Yemassees from Carolina left much valuable land open for new settlements. 74. King Asked to Take Province. After the Yemassees were driven away, Governor Craven sailed from Carolina to England, leaving Robert Daniell to act as governor. The As- sembly met at Charles Town and decided to ask the king to take the Province away from the Lords Proprietors and govern it himself. The Assembly described to the king the distress in which the war with the Yemassees had left the Province and appealed to him to take it away from the Proprietors and put it under his protection and care. CHAPTER VI THE PIRATES 75. Pirates Appear Again. During the time the people of South Carolina were engaged in a death struggle with the Yemassees, the ships of the pirates began to come again to the coast of the Province and seize and rob vessels. Daniell captured a party of pirates and hanged them while he was acting as gov- ernor. This, however, did not drive the other sea robbers away, and, when Robert Johnson came to South Carolina to be gover- nor, he was called upon at once to take measures against the bold and bloody buccaneers. 76. King Promises Pardon. King George I, who became king of England upon the death of Queen Anne, had promised to pardon all pirates who gave themselves up within twelve months. He sent English ships of war to the Island of Provi- dence in the West Indies, where many of the pirates had head- quarters, and these ships broke up the nest of pirates on this island. After being driven away from Providence, the pirates swarmed to the coast of North and South Carolina, where the many creeks and bays afforded splendid places in which to hide their ships. Some of them accepted the king's promise of par- don, but the wild, lawless life and the rich spoils they took from captured ships induced many of them to continue to commit outrages upon the sea. At this time, there were probably about 1,500 men engaged in piracy on the Atlantic coast of America. They were men of all nations, desperate, cruel ruffians, who thought nothing of robbing and burning peaceful merchant ships and murdering the sailors if they resisted, or setting the crews ashore on desert islands and leaving them to starve. 77. "Black Beard." After the pirates were forced away from the Island of Providence by the English naval force, they 36 HISTORY OP SOUTH CAROLINA 37 began to come to the Carolina coast in such numbers, that in June, 1718, Governor Robert Johnson wrote to England, begging for aid. He said in his letter, ' ' Hardly a ship goes to sea but falls into the hands of the pirates. ' ' During this same month, "Black Beard," a notorious pirate whose real name was Edward Thatch, appeared off Charles Town with four ships under his com- mand. In the first few days after he arrived, Thatch took eight or nine vessels which sailed from Charles Town. On one of these vessels he captured Samuel Wragg, a member of the Carolina Council, who was sailing for England with William, his four-year-old son. Some of Thatch's pirate crew were sick and in need of medicines. So he armed a boat and sent it to Charles Town with a few of his men to tell Gover- nor Johnson that if the medicines were not delivered immedi- ately, he would send him the heads of Wragg and the other Charles Town prisoners. Two days passed and the armed boat did not return to the pirate ships. "Black Beard" told Wragg and the other Charles Town prisoners to prepare to die. Word came, however, that the boat had been overturned and delayed in reaching Charles Town. So Thatch was persuaded to wait one more day. Meanwhile, Governor Johnson and his Council debated swallowing the insult offered by the pirates and sending the medicines. The third day came and, as the armed boat did not appear, Thatch was certain that his men had been seized and swore that Wragg and his fellow prisoners should die. Governor Johnson, however, decided to send the medicines. The boat returned to the pirate ships before "Black Beard" carried out his threat. After robbing Wragg of a very large sum of money, "Black Beard" set him and his little son ashore with the other prisoners, but not until he had stripped the whole party nearly naked. They made their way back to the city, arriving in a pitiful condition. "Black Beard's" evil life was cut short soon afterward by a party of men sent by the Gover- 38 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA nor of Virginia, who killed this pirate in a desperate fight at sea. 78. Stede Bonnet. Governor Johnson eagerly awaited a chance to wipe out "Black Beard's" insult to Charles Town. News soon came to him that Stede Bonnet, another pirate, was at Cape Fear River in North Carolina aboard his ship, the Revenge, with a crew of sixty desperate men. Bonnet had been with Thatch at the time Wragg was captured. He was the last man any one would have thought capable of becoming a pirate as he was educated, wealthy and middle aged. In 1717, when living quietly at Bridgetown in Barbadoes, Bonnet bought and armed a ship which he named the Revenge. One dark night with seventy ruffians aboard his vessel. Bonnet slipped out of the harbor of Bridgetown and began a series of outrages on the sea. After some months, Bonnet accepted pardon from the king through Governor Eden of North Carolina. But, after accept- ing the king's pardon, he set sail on another pirate cruise, first changing his name to "Captain Thomas" and the name of his ship to the Royal James. Returning from this raid, he sailed into Cape Fear River to make some repairs to his ship and get it ready for another cruise. 79. Rhett Goes After Bonnet. When the news came to Charles Town that Bonnet was at Cape Fear, Colonel William Rhett asked Governor Johnson to let him fit out two ships and go to attack the pirate. The governor readily consented. So with the Sea Nymph, carrying sixty men, and the Henry with eighty more, Rhett sailed for Cape Fear in September, 1718. 80. The Fight at Cape Fear. Rhett 's ships reached Cape Fear late in Colonel William riiett, ^j^g afternoon and, across the headland, W ho fought so galliintly ^ • ^ -, « against the pirates. he Sighted tlic masts of Bounct's vessel. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 39 Unfortunately, in trying to enter Cape Fear River, both the Sea Nymph and the Henry ran aground on a sand bar. It was late at night before they were floated off by the rising tide. In the meantime, the pirates, who were on the watch, sent armed men in rowboats to see whether they were ships of war or mer- chant vessels. The boats reported that Rhett's ships had cannon aboard. Bonnet knew then that at break of day a fight to the death would begin. He made all possible preparations, and Battle Between tue Ucnnj and the Royal James. Rhett did likewise. As day broke, Rhett saw Bonnet's ship making sail to try to pass the Sea Nymph and the Henry and so get out to sea. Rhett ordered both his ships to make for Bonnet as he approached. In trying to escape, the pirate ship ran on a sand bar and stuck fast. In attempting to come close to her, both Rhett's ships went aground, the Henry not more than a pistol shot away from the Royal James and the Sea Nymph too far off to assist the Henry. When Rhett found it impossible to get the Henry afloat, he ordered a heavy fire 40 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA opened on the pirate ship. The guns on the Royal James replied to the fire. The cannon on both ships fired broadside after broadside while the crews kept up a hot fire with small arms. On account of the positions in which the ships had grounded, the pirates had a great advantage over the Henry. The men on the latter saw the members of the pirate crew, certain of victory, waving their hats for them to surrender and come aboard. At last, the rising tide released the Henry from the sand bar before the Royal James moved. Then, the advantage being on the side of the Henry, the pirate crew wanted to give up. Bonnet would not hear to this and threatened to blow out the brains of any of his men who would not fight to the last. After five hours of fighting, however, Bonnet's crew persuaded him to surrender. In this fight, Rhett lost a dozen men and twenty-eight others were wounded, six of whom died later. 8i. Bonnet Captured. Rhett arrived at Charles Town in October, 1718, bringing Bonnet and the pirates as prisoners and the pirate ship as a prize. The pirate crew was placed in the watch-house at Charles Town, but Bonnet under guard was allowed to live at the house of the town marshal. Preparations were made to try all of them before Chief Justice Nicholas Trott at Charles Town. 82. More Pirates Come. While Bonnet and his crew were awaiting their trial. Governor Johnson heard that Moody, a notorious pirate, was just outside of Charles Town harbor, in a ship of fifty guns on which there were 200 pirates. Johnson and the Council armed three merchant vessels and prepared Bonnet's old ship, the Royal James, for an attack on Moody. Rhett and Johnson had quarreled, and, as Rhett would not take command of the ships being got ready to go against Moody, Johnson said that he himself would command the little fleet. The governor promised to give to men who volunteered to go against the pirates all the booty taken on board the pirates' ship. In a few days, 300 men had agreed to sail with the governor. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 41 83. Bonnet Escapes. Bonnet with another pirate escaped from the liouse of the town marshal, while Johnson was prepar- ing his ships to fight Moody. Bonnet is said to have got away disguised as a woman. With an Indian and a negro to paddle them, the two pirates put out to sea in a canoe, hoping to reach the pirate ship just outside Charles Town harbor. The sea became rough, and, after being almost drowned, they were forced to land on Sullivan's Island, across the harbor from Charles Town. They hid themselves on the island among the sand hills and in clumps of myrtle and cedar. Governor Johnson offered a reward for the capture of Bonnet. Hearing that he was on the island, Johnson sent Rhett with a small party of men to take him. This Rhett did after killing the pirate who was with Bonnet and wounding the Indian and negro. 84. Bonnet's Crew Hanged. A day or two after Bonnet escaped, the members of his crew were tried before Chief Justice Trott. Twenty-two of these pirates were found guilty and hanged at Charles Town. 85. Johnson Goes out to Fight. The same day he sent Rhett to capture Bonnet, Johnson took the four vessels in his little fleet down Charles Town harbor as far as Fort Johnson, where they quietly dropped anchor for the night. When the morning mist rolled off the sea, Johnson's four vessels, without making any warlike display, sailed toward the place where the pirates were. 86. Two Pirate Vessels. As the South Carolinians drew near, they saw that instead of the one vessel they had expected there were two, one a ship and the other a sloop. The pirates were completely deceived by the appearance of Johnson's ships. They thought that they were unarmed merchant vessels leaving the harbor and tried to cut them off. As the pirate vessels drew near to Johnson's four vessels, they ran up the black flag of piracy to their mastheads. Johnson raised the English colors and let fly at the pirates with all his guns. The pirates were dismayed at this show of force from what they thought were 42 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA merchant vessels. Johnson's ship sailed straight for the pirate ship and a hot fight at close range was opened. Then, the pirate ship hoisted its sails and put out to sea. Signaling two of his ships to attack the pirate sloop, Johnson gave chase with his two remaining ships to the fleeing pirate vessel. Map showing the Province of Carolina and islands in the West Indies connected with its history. 87. Fight in Charles Town Harbor. The two ships left by Johnson needed no second bidding to attack the pirate sloop. After a desperate battle, the Carolinians boarded the sloop and killed every pirate above deck besides taking others prisoners. The battle was fought almost in sight of the people of Charles Town, who lined the walls of the forts and the wharves while it HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 43 was going on and waited eagerly to see who would be victor. A great cheer went up from the throngs of anxious people when the two vessels from Johnson's fleet hove into sight with the flag of England fluttering from their masts. Soon they reached Charles Town and landed in chains the pirates who had not been killed. 88. Johnson Takes Pirate Ship. Johnson and his two ships did not overtake the ship of the pirates until late in the after- noon, when it was far out at sea. Soon after he got near enough to the fleeing vessel to use his cannon, a shot from one of his guns disabled it and the pirates hauled down their black flag in token of surrender. Going aboard the ship, Johnson found locked in it thirty-six women who had been captured while on their way to Virginia. 89. Worley, Not Moody. On returning to Charles Town with the pirate prisoners and the women from the ship, John- son learned that the ship and the sloop were not commanded by the pirate Moody as he had supposed, but by Richard Worley, an even more notorious pirate and one who was a terror along the American coast. Worley had been aboard the sloop and was killed during the fight in the harbor with Johnson's two ships. 90. Bonnet Convicted. Stede Bonnet was tried by Chief Justice Trott four days after Johnson returned from the fight with Worley. At the trial. Bonnet was calm. His bearing and defense gained the sympathy of the public. He was found guilty, though, and sentenced to death. Then his courage deserted him and he pleaded pitifully for his life. Bonnet wrote Governor Johnson, begging "that the tears proceeding from my most sorrowful soul may soften your heart." Bonnet's pleas, though they moved the public, had no effect on Governor Johnson, who was determined that this pirate should pay for his crimes with his life. Bonnet was hanged at Charles Town on December 10, 1718. Twenty-three of those captured on Wor- ley 's ship and sloop were convicted and hanged shortly before Bonnet paid the death penalty. 44 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 91. Danger from Pirates Finally Ended. Despite the bravery of Rhett and Johnson in attacking them and the promptness with which Justice Trott sentenced captured pirates to death, these sea robbers continued to take ships. It was not until several months after the stirring fights of the summer and fall of 1718, of which we have just told, that two ships of war were sent by England to protect Charles Town from the pirates, and finally put an end to this danger. However, ex- cept for the spirit of Rhett and Johnson, the lives of many Carolinians might have been taken by the pirates and un- doubtedly the trade of Charles Town would have been ruined, as no merchants would have sent ships to a port where they were certain of capture. It is well to remember that, just as they won the terrible war against the Yemassees without help, the people of South Carolina, led by Robert Johnson and William Rhett, fought off and conquered the pirates unaided at a time when the sea robbers were most numerous and most daring on the Carolina coast. CHAPTER VII THE OVERTHROW OF THE PROPRIETORS 92. Political Conditions. The relations of South Carolina with the Lords Proprietors and with the English king were some- what tangled, when the year 1719 began. The Province had one set of men in London whose business it was to look after its interests with the Proprietors and another set who were there for the purpose of getting favors for the Province from the king. The king, as we have seen, had an officer in South Carolina to collect taxes on goods shipped out of the Province and to enforce the English trade laws. The Proprietors, at this time, did not depend only on Governor Robert Johnson and his Council for news about what was going on in South Carolina, but also had men in their pay in the Province whose duty it was to send them news. When the South Carolinians appealed to the king to take the Province away from the Proprietors and put it directly under his care, the Proprietors urged the king to let them continue to govern South Carolina. 93. Assembly Passes Law^s. Meanwhile, the people of the Province, through their Assembly, or legislature, were govern- ing themselves very much as they pleased. The Assembly passed laws to encourage white servants to come to the Province be- cause the larger the white population the more protection the country would have against the Indians. Laws passed at this time provided also for caring for poor people in the Province. To raise money to pay the heavy debts made during the Yemassee War and in fitting out ships to fight the pirates, the Assembly laid a tax on liquors and goods brought into South Carolina. 94. Proprietors Break up Assembly. Governor Robert Johnson, by his bravery in fighting the pirates and his good 45 46 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA sense, had made himself very dear to the people. He had been appointed, of course, by the Lords Proprietors. Therefore, for the sake of this popular governor, the people tried in every way to put an end to their quarrels with the Proprietors. The As- sembly voted to pay the Proprietors rents due them on the lands. The elec- tion laws were revised to suit the Pro- prietors and in other ways the people tried to get along with these English lords and gentlemen who, although greedy for their rents and eager to keep the Province for their own, had turned a deaf ear to the appeals of the people for aid when the Yemassee Indians and the pirates threatened the ruin of South Carolina. In the midst of these friendly efforts on the part of the Province, the Assembly was ordered by the Pro- Governor Johnson realized that this was not right. He sent a messenger to England to the Lords Pro- prietors to beg them not to dissolve the Assembly and to tell them that the people of the Province were friendlier toward them than they had ever been. 95. Proprietors Will Not Yield. Governor Johnson's mes- senger was received with little courtesy by the Lords Pro- prietors. Instead of listening to him and yielding to Johnson's good advice, they wrote Johnson a letter in which they criticized him for not doing as he was told and ordered him to break up the old Assembly at once and call a new one. In insisting so unreasonably on dissolving the Assembly, the Proprietors pulled down the last prop of their government in South Carolina. A new Assembly met according to orders. 96. Johnson Asked to Govern for King. Events which quickly followed the meeting of the new Assembly led to the final overthrow of the Lords Proprietors, The people of Tub Duke of Albemarle, One of tlip Lorils Proprit'toi's. prielors to break up. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 47 South Carolina, whom continual fighting had made self-reliant, had no fear of the Proprietors who had governed them so self- ishly and so badly for fifty years. The Proprietors had given the Province no assistance when it needed it most in the Yemas- see War and when the pirates swarmed along its coast. In place of aid and assistance, the Proprietors had hampered the Province by setting aside sensible laws passed by the Assembly and trying to enforce foolish laws of their own. As they had proved that they were strong enough to protect themselves against their enemies, the Spaniards, the Indians and the pirates, the South Carolinians now felt strong enough to protect them- selves against the unjust Proprietors. So the Assembly asked Governor Robert Johnson, because of the love the people bore him, to govern the Province for the king of England, George I, instead of for the Proprietors. 97. Johnson Refuses. Johnson told the Assembly that, as he had been appointed by the Lords Proprietors and had sworn to obey them, he must be true to his oath and his trust. He said, further- more, that he could not by any word or act of his do anything to aid in the over- throw of the Proprietors. Robert John- son's refusal showed that he was a truly great and honorable man as his bravery in fighting the pirates had proved that he was a good soldier. 98. Carolina Becomes a Royal Province. After receiving Governor Johnson's reply, the new Assembly de- clared that the Province of South Caro- lina would no longer continue under the rule of the Proprietors, but would place itself under the rule of His Majesty, George I, king of England. Then the Assembly made John ]\Ioore governor of South Carolina and elected other officers for the Province. Colonel John Barnwell The Eakl of Clarendon, One of the Lords Proprietors. 48 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA was sent by the Assembly to tell King George of its action and to beg him to take the Province under his protection and govern it. This King George agreed to do. No longer able to enforce obedience to their orders in South Carolina, the Lords Pro- prietors yielded the government to the king. Whereupon, South Carolina, in 1719, became a royal Province, after having been misruled by the Lords Proprietors for fifty years. 99. Progress in First Fifty Years. These first fifty years under the Pro- prietors were important be- cause, during them, the peo- ple of the Province of South Carolina laid the foundation on which rest many of the rights and liberties we enjoy to this day. With rare courage, the colonists had fought and defeated the In- dians and pirates at home and had then turned and overthrown the Lords Proprietors who were misgoverning them from England. The 200 colonists who landed on the bank of the Ashley River in 1670, had brought with them a love of liberty which became stronger the longer they lived in the Province. The Province itself had grown and developed during these fifty years in spite of the Proprietors. In 1719, there were nearly 20,000 people in South Carolina, about half of whom were negro slaves. Although busy making a living in a new country, hard pressed at times by the Spaniards, Indians and pirates, continually interfered with by the meddlesome Lords Proprietors, the people of South Carolina nevertheless had, as we have seen, built churches, founded free schools and even opened a public library in Charles Town. The hardy colonists had pushed out from Charles Town, the heart of the FoRJiER Powder Maga/^ine of the Province of South Carolina Built About 1703. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 49 Province, and made settlements all along the coast in what we now call the Low-Country. These colonists suffered all the hard- ships and braved all the dangers from Indians which later on other hardy men had to face when they in turn settled the northern part of the Province, or, as we call it, the Up-Country. By 1719, many of the South Carolinians had become rich from the Indian trade or from farming or raising great herds of cattle. The farmers grew, among other things, the best rice in the world, cultivating it with slave labor. In ships from Charles Town, they sent to other countries rice, deer skins, salt pork, salt beef, hides, butter, lumber, pitch, turpentine and a little cotton and silk. The people in the Low Country of South Carolina were no longer helpless and struggling. By the time the king took charge of the Province, it was almost a little nation in itself — a valiant little country in which all South Carolinians may take just pride. CHAPTER VIII UNDER THE RULE OF THE ENGLISH KING 100. First Royal Governor. King George I sent out Gen- eral Francis Nicliolson to be the first royal governor of South Carolina. This was two years after John Barnwell was sent to tell the king that the people wanted him to rule the Province. The people of South Carolina received General Nicholson with joy, for they expected that under the rule of the king the Prov- ince would be wisely governed and free from the political trou- bles which had marked the rule of the Lords Proprietors. loi. The Form of Government. The king gave to the Province of South Carolina a government somewhat like that of England. The governor represented the king in the Province. The king appointed a Council which was to advise with the governor about making the laws and other matters. There was to be also a Commons House of Assembly, the members of which were to be elected by the men of the Province. The Commons House of Assembly was a lawmaking body. We shall hear much more of the Council and the Commons House, because of the trouble which arose between them over their rights in making laws. All laws had to be sent to England for the king's approval. Often this meant weeks of delay. Everything con- sidered, the new government which the king gave South Caro- lina, when General Nicholson became governor, was much better than that the people had had while the Proprietors ruled. The people of the Province were satisfied with it for the time being. 102. People Show Their Strength. After three years, Governor Nicholson gave up his office, and Arthur Middleton, who was then president of the Council, was told by the king to take Nicholson's place. Governor Middleton, the Council, and the Commons House disagreed soon afterwards about 50 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 51 issuing paper money. In this disagreement, the old political troubles of the days of the Proprietors flared up again, and the Province was soon in the midst of a dispute. But the people, as a whole, were on the side of the Commons House, whose members they had elected. The Commons House finally had its way. Thus, in the first disagreement in the Province under the rule of the king, the will of the people proved stronger than that of the governor and Council who stood for the king. A part of the "Back Country" of the Province of South Carolina as shown by an old map. The map-maker did not know what this part of the Province was like. So he drew rivers, forests and mountains to suit his fancy and filled the blank spaces with figures of animals, birds and Indians. 103. The Cherokee Indians. To the north and west of the settlements in the Low-Country of Carolina lived the Cherokee Indians, a powerful tribe who were fierce fighters and tireless hunters. Their men were only of medium height but very strong and wiry. The Cherokees dressed in the skins of animals killed by their hunters. On their heads, they wore a small lock of hair into which they stuck gaily colored feathers. The set- 52 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA tiers in the Low-Country called the land of the Cherokees the "Back Country," because it was hack from the coast. 104, Hunters, Traders and Cow Drivers. Three classes of white men had already gone into the country of the Cherokees. The first to make the journey were hunters, who went there because game was so plentiful. The hunt- ers impressed the Indians, who . „ TT c^ knew little of guns, with the dead- A Pack Horse _ ° ' liness of their rifles and often, too, by their daring in attacking fierce animals. The hunters on returning home told stories of the fine land in the Cherokee country. Following the hunters came the Indian traders, the second class of white men to go into the Cherokee country. These traders made their homes at the Indian villages, some of them living there for years and marrying Indian women. The traders were shrewd and fearless men. They bought from the Indians furs and skins of animals, giving in return guns, powder and ball, rum, beads, looking-glasses, hatchets and trinkets of various sorts. The traders sent these furs and skins to Charles Town, where they brought in the market many times what the traders had paid the Indians for them. The skins and furs were carried out of the Indian country on the backs of pack horses and goods for the traders were brought in the same way. The pack horsemen, many of whom were boys, led a wild life full of ad- venture and thrills. The third class of men who went into the country of the Cherokees were cow drivers. These men built cow pens at many places in the ''Back Country." Into these pens they drove their herds of cattle to protect them from wild animals and thieves. The cow drivers erected log huts for them- selves at the pens. Settlements grew up around the pens, be- cause the drivers, armed with rifles, gave protection against the Indians. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 53 105. What the Cherokee Country Was Like. The land of the Cherokees, which we now know as the Piedmont section of South Carolina, was a beautiful, rolling country. Not all of it was covered by the forests for there were many open spaces, or prairies. On these prairies, grass and wild pea vines grew, and along the streams there were vast brakes of cane. The green leaves of these canes furnished food for the cattle of the cow drivers in the winter when the cold killed the grass on the prairies. The country swarmed with game, early accounts tell- ing of great numbers of buffaloes, bears, deer, elk, panthers, wild cats, and packs of wolves. CuEUOKEE Indians, Who went with Sir Alexander Gumming to London. 106. French Try to Turn Indians against English. Though the French had never settled in South Carolina since Ribault tried at Port Royal, this nation had made settlements at several places on the Mississippi River. The French constantly sent men to stir up trouble between the English settlers and the Cherokees and other Indians. These men would tell the Indians 54 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA that the English meant to take their land, plant it in crops and drive away the game. The English were much alarmed over the dealings of the French with the Indians, 107. Cumming Visits Cherokees and Takes Warriors to London. Sir Alexander Cumming came from England to Caro- lina early in 1730 to visit the Cherokees. Sir Alexander set out from Charles Town and met the chiefs and principal warriors of the Cherokees at their town of Keowee in what is now Oconee County. Sir Alexander was shown the greatest kindness by the Indians. He asked their leading men to return to England with him to let King George II see what kind of people they were. None of the Cherokee chiefs would go, but finally six warriors consented to make the long journey. On the way to Charles Town a seventh Indian joined the party. In London the Indians were greeted by a curious crowd, and we can imagine the aston- ishment with which these wild red men from our hills and mountains saw the sights of that great city. When they were brought before King George II, the warriors said that they and their people would remain forever friendly to the English. On his part. King George told the Indians that "he took it kindly that their people had sent them so far to brighten the chain of friendship between him and them." 108. Johnson Returns as Governor. Near the end of 1730, Robert Johnson came to South Carolina again, having been appointed by the king governor in place of Middleton. John- son brought back with him the seven Cherokee Indians. It was very fitting that the king should have given Johnson the place as governor, as he had shown himself loyal to the Lords Pro- prietors and would not continue to serve as governor when the people threw off the heavy rule of these English lords. John- son, who knew the Province and its needs, encouraged agricul- ture and trade, while he strengthened the forts at Charles Town and elsewhere. 109. Encouraging Immigration. Johnson also carried out a plan of the king's advisers to increase the number of people HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 55 in the Province. This plan consisted in laying ont townships, containing twenty thousand acres of land, along the banks of rivers. This land was to be given in fifty-acre lots, one lot to each man, woman and child who settled on it. Townships were laid out on the Savannah, Peedee, Santee, Edisto, Black, Waccamaw, Congaree, Wateree and Altamaha rivers. A colony of Swiss settled on one of the townships on the Savannah River, ROBEUT JOUKSON WELCOJIED L!1 THE PEOPLE WHEN HE RETURNED TO THE Province to Be Royal Governor. calling their new home Purrysburgh after their leader, John Peter Purry. A little later another colony of Swiss moved into the township of Orangeburgh on the Edisto River. They were joined soon by a few settlers from the Palatinate of Germany. An Irish colony came to the Province and made their home on the Black River at the township of Williamsburgh. no. Georgia Founded. Besides aiding and encouraging these new settlers in South Carolina, Governor Johnson also 56 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA helped to found what became afterward the State of Georgia. The founding of this colony was part of the plan to protect South Carolina against the Spaniards in Florida. The leader of the Georgia colony was James Edward Oglethorpe, a member of the English Parliament. Oglethorpe and his little colony arrived in Charles Town and were welcomed by Governor Johnson and the people. They were escorted first to Port Royal and then across the Savannah River where they selected a site for a town which they named Savannah. Slaves were loaned them by Carolinians to build their houses. They were also given seed rice, horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. Governor Johnson him- self presented the Georgia colony with seven horses. South Carolina thus had part in founding the State of Georgia. In after years the two states were called the ' ' Sister States. ' ' III. First Newspaper in Province. Another event of im- portance, which took place during Governor Johnson's time, was the printing of the first newspaper in South Carolina. This was published at Charles Town by Thomas Whitmarsh, a printer, and was called The South Carolina Gazette. Copies of this newspaper have been preserved and we can read in its pages about the people of the Province and how they lived nearly two hundred years ago. The Sotdh Carolina Gazette was pub- lished on Saturdays. Its pages were much smaller than those of newspapers of today, being about the size of pages in a school geography. 112. Death of Johnson. Governor Johnson died in 1735, deeply mourned by all the people of the State. He was a wise and kind man and earned for himself the name of "The Good Gov- ernor Robert Johnson." His brother- in-law, Thomas B.roughton, who was Thomas buoughton, lieutenant governor, succeeded Johnson Who succocdcd Ildhrrt Johnson :is Governor. aS gOVCmOr. I HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 57 113. Council and Commons House Quarrel. Soon after- ward the trouble between the Council and the Commons House flared up again. The dispute this time was over the rights of the Council in making laws. The Commons House said the Council had a right only to advise in the matter of passing laws, but no right actually to make them. At the root of the trouble, probably, was the fact that most of the members of the Council were Englishmen who were said to have bought their places, while all of the members of the Commons House were citizens of Carolina. When Broughton died, William Bull, senior mem- ber of the Council, who had been born in South Carolina, was made governor. 114. Condition o£ the Slaves. The condition of the negro slaves in the Province at this time was interesting. These negroes greatly outnumbered the white people. By their labor they had developed the farms of their owners. Efforts were made to Christianize them, as many of them were brought to Carolina from the wilds of Africa or after a short stay in the West Indies and were heathens. Usually their white mistresses instructed them in religion. After a time a society was or- ganized to spread the Gospel among them. The slaves were regarded merely as merchandise, the property of their masters. One of the laws passed in this period laid a tax on "negroes, liquors, and other goods and merchandise. ' ' From time to time, the increase in number of negro slaves had caused anxiety. A tax had been laid on them to discourage bringing more of them into the Province, but the English merchants encouraged the people of the Province to run into debt to buy slaves. These merchants got in return the rice raised by the labor of the negroes. 115. Spaniards Arouse Slaves. The fears of those who watched the increase in the number of slaves were justified in 1739, when there was an uprising of the negroes against their white owners. The Spaniards in Florida stirred up the negroes by inviting them to come and join their army. Led by a 58 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Mulberry, the House Thomas Broughton River, Built in 1714. OF Governor ON Cooper negro named Cato, a body of slaves met at Stono and, starting in the direction of Florida, burned cabins and killed settlers as they went. At a Presbyterian church, called the Willtown church, where the white people had met for worship, the report came that the slaves were on the march. The men, who al- ways carried their guns with them in these early days, quickly organized and went against the slaves. They easily overcame them and shot Cato and a number of others. After this uprising, the laws governing the slaves were made much more severe. II 6. Fire Sweeps Charles Town. In 1740, while Bull was still acting as governor, a great fire destroyed three hun- dred houses in Charles Town. Several people were burned to death and many families were ruined. The loss from the fire was enormous. Pitying the condition of Charles Town and knowing the value of the trade with South Carolina, the English government gave a large sum of money for the relief of the fire- swept city, 117. Governor Glen Disappointed. James Glen, a Scotch- man, was the next royal governor to reach South Carolina. Glen came to the Province thinking that he would have almost the power of a king. He was disappointed and angered when he found that the people were practically governing themselves. He wrote some of his friends in England that the independence shown by the people would cause trouble for the king if it were not checked. The high offices in the Province were filled by men from England, whom the king appointed. The Commons House, whose members were South Carolinians, used its power to pre- vent these high officers from running affairs as they pleased. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 59 ii8. Indigo Enriches Province. About this time, another great crop which was to add to the wealtli of South Carolina became important. This was indigo, a plant from which a beautiful blue dye was made. The crop thrived in the Province and by 1747 considerable quantities of it were being sold each year for large sums and sent abroad to the makers of dyes. Moses Lindo, a Jew who understood the sorting and grading of indigo, aided greatly in marketing the crop. Without his help, the planters would not have secured as good prices. Lindo de- serves great credit for making the raising of indigo a success in South Carolina. CHAPTER IX THE CHEROKEE WAR 1 19. The French and the Cherokees. The Cherokee Indians grew restless as colonists built houses farther and farther back from the coast toward their villages. The crops the Indians planted were very small. They depended largely on game for food. With the approach of the settlers, the red men saw danger of the game being all killed or driven away. The agents of the French among the Cherokee Indians used this fear with great effect in stirring up feeling among the Indians against the English. The French agents told the Indians, too, that the English would kill all of the warriors and sell their squaws and children into slavery. The French agents were very active among the Cherokees at this time, because England and France were at war. The field of war was extended to America where the French and English fought many battles in the North. 120. Cherokees Angered. The Cherokees sent a party of their warriors with the South Carolina troops who went to aid the Eng- lish in the North against the French. This party was headed by Little Carpenter (Attakullakulla), a great Cherokee chief. For some reason Little Carpenter and nine of his warriors deserted. They were arrested on their way home, disarmed and brought back. They were too crafty to show any anger over their treat- ment at that time. Another group of Cherokees quit the party a little later and, coming back through North Carolina, they killed twenty-two white people, carrying their scalps in triumph to their towns of Settiquo and Telliquo. A few more Cherokees lost their horses while they were coming back home through Virginia. To replace these horses, they stole several from white settlers. These settlers went after the Indians and killed ten or twelve of them. Such happenings aroused deep anger among the 60 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 61 Cherokees. The French agents were quick to take advantage of this and to work their rage up to fever heat against the English. 121. Forts in the Cherokee Country. In October, 1753, Governor Glen went to the Cherokee country, made a treaty with the chiefs and bought several thousand acres of land from them opposite their town of Keowee on the river of that name. Here the governor immediately built a fort which he called Fort Prince George, A little later another fort named Fort Loudoun was built on the Little Tennessee River across the Blue Ridge Mountains in what is now the State of Tennessee. Both these forts were built at the earnest request of the Cherokee Indians for protection to the trade between them and the people of the Province. Troops were placed in these forts. 122. Settlers Killed. All this time the French were at work stir- ring up the Cherokees. A band of young warriors fell upon the English settlers nearest to them and killed all they could find. William Henry Lyttelton had just succeeded Glen as governor of South Carolina. As soon as Lyttelton heard of the killing of the settlers, he demanded that the Indian murderers should be delivered to him by their chiefs to be put to death. It was thought that the murderers came from the towns of Settiquo and Telliquo and the officer commanding Fort Loudoun called for the sur- render of the chiefs of these towns. At the same time the com- mander of Fort Prince George stopped a quantity of powder and ball which was being sent by the traders to the Cherokees. The wise old men among the Indians did not want war, but the young men, called "red sticks," were eager for it, held war dances and waved their tomahawks. 123. Lyttelton Offends Chiefs. So many of the Cherokee chiefs were against war that it was agreed that they were to An Up-Countrt Settler's Cabin. 62 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Ruins of a Fort Wnirii Stood on Beaufout Riveu and Was Named for governou llttelton. hold a "talk" with Governor Lyttelton. Accordingly, about thirty chiefs went to Charles Town. Among them was Great Warrior (Oconostota). Lyttelton promised the Indians that they would be protected in passing through the settlements and would be allowed to go back to their homes in safety from Charles Town. The Chero- kee chiefs wanted to tell the governor that it was only the "red sticks/' the young In- dians, who had committed the murders and who wished for war. Lyttelton refused to hear the chiefs, and treated them very badly when they met him in Charles Town. He acted very unwisely, showing that he knew nothing about Indians and their ways. William Bull, who was a native of Carolina, and other members of the governor's Council who knew more about Indians than Lyttelton did, urged him to hear the chiefs. He refused to do so and the Cherokees were in- dignant. Lyttelton told the chiefs that as the murderers had not been surrendered he would go with his army into the Cherokee country and take them. 124. Lyttelton Marches to Cherokee Country. Carrying out this threat, Lyttelton called the militia to meet at the Con- garees and set out himself in October from Charles Town for the Cherokee country. He was accompanied by the chiefs whom he had promised to protect and return in safety to their coun- try. Many prominent South Carolinians went with him to take part in the expected fighting. Among these were Christopher Gadsden, William Moultrie and Francis Marion, of all of whom we sliall hear much more in later times. At the Congarees, about 1,500 men of the militia gathered. They were not equipped for HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 63 fighting and made a very poor show. The haughty Indian chiefs must have been amused at Lytteltou's threat to take the mur- derers with this sorry army. After tliey left the Congarees, the Indian chiefs were treated as prisoners, though Lyttelton had promised to protect them. When Lyttelton arrived at Fort Prince George, the chiefs were thrown into a miserable hut scarcely large enough to hold a half dozen people. 125. Lyttelton Decides Not to Fight. On the march from the Congarees to Fort Prince George, Lyttelton saw that his little army, untrained and poorly armed, could not fight suc- cessfully against the Cherokees. So he sent to Little Carpenter and asked him to come to Fort Prince George. Little Carpenter did so and Lyttelton told him that he would begin war unless the murderers were given up. Little Carpenter persuaded the governor to release Great Warrior to help him bring in the murderers. A few of the Indians, guilty of murdering settlers, were given up, but Little Carpenter found it impossible to bring all of them to the fort. However, in 'December, 1759, a treaty was signed with the governor by Little Carpenter, Great Warrior and four other Cherokees. Tlie treaty said that the Indian chiefs imprisoned at Fort Prince George should be held there until an equal number of Indian murderers were given up. When Lyttelton got back to Charles Town, he was hailed as a conqueror. There had been no blood shed, but a treaty had been signed and the people showered praise upon him. Lyttelton, though, had acted most dishonorably toward the chiefs as he had broken his word when he imprisoned them. 126. Cherokees Start War. Very soon after Lyttelton re- turned to Charles Town, fourteen South Carolinians were killed by the Cherokees within a mile of Fort Prince George. The Indians, led by Great Warrior, surrounded the fort. Great Warrior had been made a relentless enemy of the Province by Lyttelton 's treatment of him. This crafty chief persuaded the commander of the fort to come outside by telling him that he wanted to talk to him. The commander was killed by the 64 HISTORY OP SOUTH CAROLINA Indians, and two of his lieutenants who came out with him were wounded. The soldiers immediately fell upon the Indian chiefs they held in the fort and butchered all of them. There were few men in the Cherokee tribe who did not lose a friend or relative among these chiefs. This meant war to the knife. In small parties, the Cherokees rushed down upon the unprotected set- tlements and, singing their war songs, they killed men, women and children wherever they found them. 127. Massacre of the Cal- houns. A band of Indians came upon the Calhoun family as they were attempt- ing to escape with their neighbors to Augusta from their home in the Long Canes section of what is now Ab- beville County. The Indians attacked them just at dusk as they were unharnessing their horses from their wagons and arranging their camp for the night. Some of the party escaped on the horses through the darkness. Many of them, however, were killed and scalped by the Cherokees, who set the woods on fire and stole all of the goods in the wagons. Afterwards numbers of the children were found in the woods, some fearfully cut and others lying on the ground scalped, but still living. Patrick Calhoun, who returned to the spot to bury the dead, found twenty bodies at the camp, among them his mother's. 128. Governor Bull Asks Help. The people were greatly alarmed over the Cherokees' attack. Early in 1760, the legis- lature provided money for raising seven companies of soldiers to protect the settlements in the "Back Country." Governor GitAVE jOF John C. Calhoun's Guand- MOTiiER Near Long Canks Wiieiib THE Cheuokees Murdeked Her in 17G0. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 65 Lyttelton, humiliated at the failure of his treaty of peace, left the Province. Lieutenant Governor William Bull, son of the former lieutenant governor of the same name, became governor in his stead. Bull asked Virginia and North Carolina for help in the war against the Cherokees. 129. British Troops Come. Seven vessels came to Charles Town, bringing 1,200 regular British troops, commanded by Colonel Montgomery. In May, part of these troops, together with the companies raised among the men of the Province, met at the Congarees, marched to Ninety Six and from there to the Cherokee towns, killing all the Indians they met and burning every Indian camp in their path. The Indians fled to the moun- tains from which they gazed upon the ruins of their smoking villages. From Fort Prince George, Colonel Montgomery sent word to the upper and middle towns of the Cherokees calling on -them to make peace. As these towns paid no attention to his demand, he marched through the upper towns in what is now the State of North Carolina. 130. Fight Indians in Mountains. At a narrow pass in the mountains in North Carolina, the Indians laid in wait for the army. A bloody fight followed in which the Indians, hiding behind rocks and trees, attacked from all sides. Again and again, the Indians were driven off only to return to the battle. Finally, though, they gave up and fled. Colonel Montgomery was forced to leave the South as he was ordered back to the Northern colonies, where his help was needed against the French. He returned to Charles Town and sailed to New York. He left about four hundred men at the Congarees to protect the ' ' Back Country." 131. Fort Loudoun Captured. All this time the Cherokees were besieging Fort Loudoun on the Little Tennessee River. Hearing that Montgomery had left, the soldiers in the fort sur- rendered to the Indians who promised that they would be allowed to return to their homes. The garrison marched out. Next day the Cherokees overtook them and murdered the 66 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA commander and twenty-six soldiers. The remainder of the soldiers were made prisoners. 132. Chief Aids his Friend. Among the prisoners was Cap- tain John Stuart, an officer in the South Carolina regiment. Little Carpenter was a close friend of Stuart's. When the chief heard that the officer was a prisoner, he immediately bought him from the Indian who held him captive. Little Carpenter then said that he was going on a hunting trip and, taking Stuart with him, let his friend escape. This was one more instance of the friendly feeling of Little Carpenter for the English. As soon as he could do so, Captain Stuart got word to Governor Bull that the Indians were planning an attack on Fort Prince George. 133. Cherokees Finally Conquered. Governor Bull immed- iately sent more men and supplies to Fort Prince George. He also appealed again for help to the British forces in the North. Once more the British soldiers and the provincial troops met at the Congarees. In May, 1761, numbering all told about 2,600 men, they entered the Cherokee Country. Soon afterwards they were attacked with great fierceness by the Indians. Some of the Cherokees rushed to close combat with knife and tomahawk, while others kept up a hot fire with their guns. At the end of three hours of bitter fighting, the Cherokees were driven off. They went fighting grimly and firing from every rock and tree as they retreated. This victory opened the way into the heart of the Cherokee Country. Estatoe, one of their largest towns, was burned and fifteen other towns were likewise destroyed. The corn fields were laid waste by the troops and the wretched Indians driven to the barren mountains on which they could get little food. Many of them died from starvation while the army marched for thirty days through the heart of their coun- try and then returned to Fort Prince George. 134. Governor Bull Makes Peace. It was not long before Little Carpenter with other chiefs of the Cherokee tribe came to the fort to beg for peace. They were taken to Charles Town for HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 67 a "talk" with Governor Bull. He met the chiefs at the ferry- on the Ashley River and received them with great kindness. A fire was kindled and for a long time the Governor and the In- dians smoked together in silence. At last Little Carpenter be- gan a speech in which he pleaded pitifully for peace for his nation. He told Bull that he had come to see what could be done for his people who were in great distress, and asked for forgive- ness. "We all live in one land — let us live as one people," begged Little Carpenter. Governor Bull was satisfied that the Cherokees had been punished enough for their crimes and made a peace with the chiefs which ended the war. 135. More Settlers Come to Up-Country. With the Chero- kee War at an end, the way was open for more people to settle in the beautiful Up-Country of South Carolina. The French had been defeated also, removing any danger from them. They had agreed to give up all the lands they claimed east of the Mississippi River. With danger from the Cherokees and the French about gone, the settlers rapidly occupied the rich and rolling lands in the Piedmont section. From Pennsylvania and Virginia parties of sturdy Scotch Irish emigrated to the Up- Country, making the trip overland. French Huguenot and Irish settlers, arriving in Charles Town, came up from the coast coun- try to the Piedmont and met the tide of Scotch Irish immigrants coming down from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Other states from which settlers came to the Piedmont section were Maryland, Jersey, New York, and even New England. One of the most famous settlements made at this time was that of the French Huguenots at New Bordeaux, in the present McCormick County. Hardy settlers from other colonies and provinces in America were attracted to the Up-Country of South Carolina by the abundance of game and the richness and beauty of the lands, which they could have for the taking. 136. Governor Boone Offends Gadsden. Thomas Boone reached South Carolina in 1761, bringing the king's commis- r.ion as governor. He made himself unpopular almost as soon as 68 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA he arrived by objecting to the way in which the members of the Commons House had been elected. He ordered a new election and, after it was held, made an enemy of Christopher Gadsden by refusing to administer to him the oath of office though he had been elected a member of the Commons House. Gadsden was born in Charles Town, but had been educated in England. "We have just told that he marched with Lyttelton against the Cherokees. Gadsden was a wealthy merchant and planter, a man of spirit who believed in the rule of the people by the people and was always ready to fight for what he thought right. Boone made a grave mistake when he offended Gadsden, who was a powerful man in the Province. The Commons House stood with Gadsden against Boone. It refused to vote money to pay the salaries of the governor and other officials. Governor Boone was allowed to go to England to tell of his troubles and he never returned to South Carolina. CHAPTER X LIFE IN THE PROVINCE 137. Province Thrives. Before studying the events which brought on the Revolutionary War, it will be well to tell some- thing about South Carolina and its citizens during the years just before this great war with England. When Thomas Boone's term as governor ended, it had been less than fifty years since the Province was placed under the rule of the king. During these years South Carolina had grown exceedingly rich and had made great progress. lu 1765, there were about 40,000 white people in South Carolina as well as about twice that num- of negro slaves. In other words, the white population of the entire Province was a little larger then than the total population of the City of Columbia in 1920. Charles Town in 1760 When the City Ranked Second to None in America. 138. Trade With England. South Carolina was probably the richest of the British provinces in America. Its trade was 69 70 HISTOEY OF SOUTH CAROLINA of tlie greatest importance to the merchants of England, Not only did the Province ship rice, indigo and other products to these merchants in great quantities, but it also bought from them goods manufactured in England. Many ships and seamen were engaged in the trade between England and South Carolina. During the year ending in March, 1765, four hundred and twenty-four vessels sailed from the ports of the Province. These ships carried to England and other markets over 110,000 barrels of rice and over half a million pounds of indigo, besides hides, furs and other products of the Province. 139. Charles Town Led Among Cities. Charles Town was a rich and flourishing town. Its population was about 10,000, of whom about half were white people and the remainder negroes. It contained about 1,200 houses, some of them fine brick mansions which cost great sums. It took rank second to none of the cities in North America. In Charles Town were two Episcopal churches (St. Philip's and St. Michael's), two Baptist churches, a Lutheran church, a Huguenot church, a Presby- terian church and a Congregational church. 140. Merchants Grow Rich. We have learned that the first fortunes made in Carolina by the early colonists came from the Indian trade. So, too, during the period while the Province was governed by the king, nearly all of the largest fortunes were made by mer- chants. Among the wealthy merchants of this time were Gabriel Manigault and Henry Laurens, both of whom were Huguenots. Manigault was probably the richest man in any of the British colonies in Former Home of Henry Laurens America. He helped poOr Cuaul"s Town. °'' ^^^"^ ^^^ '"^ Huguenot immigrants who HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 71 came to South Carolina. Manigault invested his money in lands and in slaves. At his death, he was one of the largest planters in the Province as well as a great merchant. Later we shall learn more of Henry Laurens, and how his wisdom aided the United States in the Revolutionary War and afterward. 141, Professional Men. There were also noted profes- sional men in South Carolina during these times. Dr. Alexan- der Garden was a famous physi- cian, known in Europe as well as in America for his work in botany. John Lining, another physician, was one of the early experimenters with electricity. Lionel Chalmers, a third of the famous doctors, wrote an account of the weather and diseases in South Carolina. Most of the lawyers of this time were native South Carolinians who went to England and there studied their profession in London. As the business done in South Carolina increased and the wealth of the country became great, there was naturally more need of attorneys. Over fifty lawyers were admitted to the bar in South Carolina during the twenty-five years before the Revo- ^^\^- Ro«eu smith, sister or " " John Kutledgb, and Heu Little lution. Son. 72 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 142. Free Schools. One of the best ways to judge the true worth of a people is by the number of churches and schools they have. It is interesting to find that less than a century after the first English colony arrived as much attention was being paid to churches and schools in South Carolina as was the case anywhere else in America, the New England States not excepted. Citizens of the Province sometimes gave money or property to be used in founding and maintaining free schools for the children of poor people. One of the most noted of the free schools of the Province was founded in 1756 at Georgetown by the Winyah Indigo Society. The members of this society were men interested in growing the indigo plant. The members' dues were paid in indigo, not in money. A large sum was on hand from the sale of this indigo. At one of its meetings the Society decided to use this money for founding a free school. The school grew and later on pay pupils were admitted. For about a hundred years after its founding, the Winyah school drew pupils from all over the eastern half of South Carolina. It is now a part of the public school system of Georgetown. 143. Pay Schools. Pay schools abounded in South Carolina. The parents of children attending these schools paid a fee to the schoolmasters. Besides reading, writing, arithmetic, history and geography, the pay schools taught Latin, Greek, French and other languages, music and dancing. There were also classes in fencing for boys and in sewing for girls. 144. Educated in England. The sons of the wealthier South Carolinians were almost always sent to England to complete their educations either at famous English schools or colleges. We have said that many of the lawyers in South Carolina studied their profession in London. 145. Religious Life. There were twenty Episcopal churches in the Province at this time. Under the law these churches were supported out of the taxes paid by the people. At Orangeburgh there were Lutheran and Episcopal churches and at Abbeville Huguenot churches. Presbyterian churches were the centers of HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 73 settlements scattered over the "Back Country." There were four Baptist churches in the Low-Country and at least one in the Up-Country in 1765. The immigrants to South Carolina were usually religious, God-fearing people. The Huguenots and others who came to the Province did so because they wanted to live where they could worship undisturbed in their own way. St. Philip's Church With Its BEAUTiFtTL Steeple and the Huguenot Church in Charleston. 146. Public Library. It is not known how long the first free library founded in Charles Town in 1698, was kept open, but in 1743 the Charles Town Library Society was founded. It exists to this day and owns a great collection of books. 147. Life in Charles Town. The City of Charles Town, during this period, was one of the largest and wealthiest cities in North America. Its people were gay, hospitable and fond of display. Their sons, returning from Europe, brought back cus- toms and fashions of the Old World, as well as wasteful habits. Clothes and jewels were brought from the cities of Europe and 74 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA sold in Charles Town. Almost every family kept horses and carriages. There were concerts, dinners and balls attended by companies of people dressed in the latest European fashions. Horse racing was a great amusement. Theaters were open in which the best actors in America played. Three weekly news- papers wxre published in the city. There were good bookstores in which the latest books from England could be bought. In the Mr. and Mi!S. Ralph Izaud of Charles Town, From a portrait painted in the Winter of 1774-5. business sections, the city was like a beehive, so busy were its citizens with matters of trade. Its wharves were lined with ships, and its harbor filled with vessels and boats. 148. Life on the Low-Country Plantations. The rice and indigo planters who lived in the Low-Country had grown very rich and owned large tracts of fertile land and many slaves. The planters lived as nearly as they could like English country gentlemen. At the head of their household servants was a butler, usually an old white haired negro who copied his master's manners and repeated his sayings. Then there was a coachman, a dependable slave, who had charge of the horses and stables, and who drove the family coach down the "Path" as HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 75 Drayton Hall in Ciiaulkstox, ISuilt BY John Drayton Before 1758, Is a good example of the homes of Low- Country Planters. the road to Charles Town was called. The coachman, riding in state on top of the coach and driving four horses with his cracking whip, was the hero of the small boys of that day. The planters, too, had a slave who was known as the patroon. He was in charge of the boats belonging to the plantation. As nearly all the great plan- tations were on the rivers in the Low-Country, boats car- ried the rice and indigo to market in Charles Town and were used by the planters in visiting their neighbors: Each plantation was a complete community. On it were carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors and shoemakers. In the fields were scores of slaves who tended the rice and indigo. The great house of the owner was filled with servants — cooks, maids and seamstresses — over whom the mis- tress of the family presided. The rich planters had their town houses in Charles Town where they lived with their families and servants during the heat of summer. The planters, like English country gentlemen, were great lovers of out- door sports. They hunted deer, raced horses, fished and shot. 149. Life in the "Back Country." While the peo- ple of Charles Town and the planters of the Low-Coun- try lived at ease and enjoyed the wealth they had made from trade and their lands and slaves, the settlers in the "Back Country" were having a struggle to get a bare living. They A Family Coach Like Those Driven Down the "Path" to Charles Town. 76 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA underwent all the hardships of a new country, just as the first settlers in the Low-Country did. Though the people of Charles Town lived in fine homes, the pioneers in the Up-Country had only rough log houses. Their clothing was made for wear and not for show. Much of the cloth was woven at home from yarn spun on spinning wheels by the women of the family. The Cherokees had been severely punished, but there was still some danger from Indians. It was necessary for the settlers to be on guard against them and not to leave their wives and children unprotected. It was hard work to clear the land of trees and canes, and to plow and plant it after it was cleared. As the settlers in the "Back Country" grew richer, some of them bought slaves to do this work for them. There were a great many cattle in the "Back Coun- try." To add to the settlers' troubles, Plow Like Those Used ' n t • ■, BY Settlers. gangs ot thicves began to steal these cattle, and the settlers' horses. These ruffians would also break into houses and murder families. There was no court nearer than Charles Town. So, finally, the sturdy pioneers of the "Back Country" organized a band of rangers whom they called ' ' Regulators. ' ' These rangers hunted down the thieves and punished them when caught. The settlers shot game for food and for sport. The streams were filled with fish of many kinds. The land was rich and, once cleared, made good crops of corn and grain. On Sundays, the settlers gathered for worship at the churches, many of them riding miles to at- tend, taking their dinners with them and remaining nearly all day. Houses were sometimes many miles apart and, except for the meetings on Sunday and when militia companies assembled for drill, it would have been hard for the settlers to know their neighbors. The ministers of the Presbyterian churches fre- quently acted as schoolmasters. They were men of learning and taught such children as they could. But there were no schools yet in the "Back Country" like those in the Low-Country. CHAPTER XI ROYAL RESTRICTIONS ON PROVINCIAL TRADE 150. Rules Injure Carolina's Trade. We have told about the Collector of the King's Revenue, an officer sent to Carolina during the days of the Proprietors. It was his duty to collect taxes for the king on goods shipped to the Province and to see that the people did not sell their crops to any countries except England and her provinces, as provided by the king's rules. These rules hampered the trade of Carolina, but they did not injure the colonies in New England, In these Northern states the people during the early times were largely engaged in ship- building instead of agriculture. 151. Later Restrictions Hurt New England. About 1700 the New England ship building industry had grown so flourish- ing that England forbade the New Englanders to build any more vessels. England selfishly wanted her own shipyards to do all the building. New England was also beginning to manufac- ture woolen goods and to make hats. This hurt the business of the English manufacturers. England, acting selfishly again, for- bade the New Englanders to ship woolen cloth or hats abroad or even sell them to the colonies in America. The trade restric- tion on manufactures was much heavier on New England than the shipping restriction on rice and indigo was on South Caro- lina. The latter was at least allowed to sell her products to the other English colonies as well as to England. This was, however, but the beginning of New England's burdens. Every industry she established called forth a restricting order from the British government. This naturally led to discontent in the northern colonies. Under King George II, South Carolina was treated as a favorite province. The shipping restriction on rice was lifted. South Carolina had no complaint to make now of- the 77 78 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA British government, as having no ship building and woolen in- dustry, she did not feel the restrictions which fell so heavily on the northern colonies. 152. England's Reasons for Restrictions. It must be understood that England felt perfectly justified in placing these restrictions upon the trade of the provinces. It was her idea that the colonies had been planted solely for her benefit. We have seen how slavery had been encouraged because it meant wealth to the merchants of England. Just as the Lords Pro- prietors wanted to make a profit out of Carolina, so England ex- pected to be repaid for the money she spent on Carolina and other provinces in America. She considered it her right to regu- late the industries which the colonies developed, to tell the col- onies how and where they could trade to her greatest good. England's idea was selfish, of course, but she had been put to great expense to protect the colonies and wanted to regain this money by regulating their industries and trade. 153. The First Direct Taxation. The English colonies in America never questioned the right of England to place these restrictions upon trade, but the fact that they burdened the colonies so heavily aroused resentment and discontent. This dis- content was deepened by the news that the people were to be taxed directly. England proposed that they should pay a small tax to defray partly the expense of the troops she had sent to help the northern colonies against the French and Indians and to help South Carolina against the Cherokee Indians. The tax law was known as the Stamp Act, because it required that all legal papers should be written on stamped paper which was to be bought at a small price from royal agents in each prov- ince. 154. Colonies Oppose Stamp Act. Stamp the British Put rpi i • 1 11 ™ •„ 4. ON Paper. ^^^^ colonies were one and all against HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 79 the Stamp Act, It was not that it placed a heavy tax on their citizens, but that they denied the right of England to tax them when they were not represented in the English Parliament. Also they felt that England was being sufficiently repaid for the expense she had been put to in planting the colonies and pro- tecting them with troops by the enormous trade they gave her. The colonies feared that the tax on stamped paper would be only the first and that other taxes would be placed on them. The Assembly of Massachusetts declared that Massachusetts would not be taxed except by its own Assembly and called a Congress in New York of citizens of all the provinces to dis- cuss the Stamp Act. The General Assembly of South Carolina declared that South Carolina would not be taxed without her consent, and elected Thomas Lynch, Christopher Gadsden, and John Rutledge to represent her in the Congress which was to be held in New York in October, 1765, 155. Stamped Paper Brought to Charles Town. The first stamped paper reached Charles Town on the ship Planter's Adventure from London. During the night a gallows was built in the center of the city and a figure hung upon it. The figure represented a man who sold stamped paper. "Liberty and no Stamp Act" was writen on the gallows, and to the figure was attached a sign which read: "Whosoever shall dare pull down these effigies had better have been born with a millstone about his neck and cast into the sea." No one attempted to take the figure from the gallows. In the days that followed & throng of citizens entered several houses in the town in which they thought the stamped paper had been stored. The courts were unable to transact business as all refused to use stamped paper. Finally, the men who were to sell it agreed to hold the paper until word could come from England in reply to the protest made by the colonies. 156. At the American Congress. In the Congress which was being held in New York at the time that the stamped paper reached Charles Town, the three South Carolinians — 80 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA CHnisTOPHEK Gadsden, The Charles Town mer- chant, whose fiery zeal for freedom helped to bring on the Revolution. Lynch, Gadsden, and Rutledge — took prominent part. The Congress sent petitions to the British government in whicli the colonies' objections to the Stamp Act were explained, 157. Repeal of the Stamp Act. In London, William Pitt took the side of the colonies and argued for the repeal of the Stamp Act. For this service a statue was erected in Charles Town, which stands there today. In June, 1766, the Stamp Act was repealed. The news was received in Charles Town with joy. In their gladness, a celebration was held by the people to show their loyalty and gratitude to the king. 158. Montagu Arrives in the Province. In the same month the Stamp Act was repealed, Lord Charles Greville Montagu arrived in Charles Town as royal governor, taking the place of Lieutenant Governor William Bull, who had served since Governor Boone left. The citizens received Governor Montagu cordially and celebrated his arrival with brilliant entertain- ments. But the joy of the people was checked when the news soon came that England had placed taxes on glass, lead, tea, and painter's colors sent to the colonies. 159, Young South Carolinians Dissatis- fied. The high offices in the Province were not filled by young South Carolinians. These native sons, many of them educated in Eng- land., were certainly fitted to hold office. But they returned to the Province to find that the high places were filled with incompetent men ^ illiam titt. The English states- sent from England. These men merely held man, "who took the offices to get salaries which went with coTonie^s'. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 81 them. The failure of the king to appoint young South Caro- linians to places in the government naturally caused dissatis- faction, 1 60. The Liberty Tree. In Charles Town there was a great oak tree, under which it came to be the habit for men to gather and discuss the unjust actions of the mother country. Chris- topher Gadsden often spoke to these gatherings. This great patriot told them why England was wrong and made them see that the mother country in demanding taxes was acting like a greedy money lender instead of like a loving and protecting mother to the colonies. Under the branches of the oak a pledge was made to resist England's actions. As a result of these gatherings, a Liberty Party was born in Charles Town. The tree was later known as the "Liberty Tree." CHAPTER XII. BREACH WIDENS BETWEEN KING AND CAROLINA i6i. The Circular Letter of Massachusetts. In 1768, the Assembly of Massachusetts sent out a circular letter to the legislatures of her sister provinces. The letter protested against the taxes laid by England upon certain kinds of goods shipped to the provinces. The letter also suggested that the British govern- ment be asked to remove these taxes. This letter aroused the anger of King George III and his advisers. They told the gover- nor of Massachusetts he must dissolve the Assembly. Before breaking up, the members of the Assembly voted not to with- draw the letter. In South Carolina, this action met with approval. The Commons House voted to write the Assembly of Massachusetts praising its action. 162. Quarters for Troops Refused. Some of the British troops who had been sent to South Carolina during the Cherokee War were still in the Province. More British troops were now ordered to Charles Town. Governor IMontague announced this news to the General Assembly and asked that quarters be pro- vided for these additional troops. The people of South Caro- lina, who were already uneasy at the presence of British soldiers when there was no need of them, ignored the governor's request. On account of ill health, Montagu retired for a leave of absence, leaving the question of the quartering of the troops unsettled. Lieutenant Governor Bull again took charge of the government. The General Assembly reported to Governor Bull that it would not agree to support any additional troops in the Province. 163. Province Still Loyal to King. Some of his advisers told King George III that he ougjit to order the chief objectors to British actions in America brought to England for trial. South Carolina and Virginia resented this threat in a protest 82 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 83 from their general assemblies. South Carolina, while the taxes imposed had not fallen heavily upon her, had been warm- hearted in her approval of the protest from Massachusetts, had refused to quarter troops, and had promptly resented the threat to seize her citizens who had been active in their protests against British misrule. She had been very careful, however, to assure King George III that South Carolina was still loyal to him. No word had as yet been said of separation from Great Britain. Map showing the Province of South Carolina at about the end of the Royal Period. State boundries are shown as they are today. 164. Courts in the "Back Country." In 1768, the Province was divided, by act of legislature, into seven districts. In these districts, courts were to be held at Charles Town, Orangeburgh, Camden, Ninety Six, Cheraws, Beaufort, and Georgetown. This act also provided for building jails and appointing officers of justice throughout South Carolina. This bill met with the 84 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA king's disapproval, but in 1769 finally became law. Court houses and jails were built in the districts and by 1772 the people were able to obtain justice at their homes instead of going to Charles Town. 165. Non-importation. In 1769-1770, one hundred years after the arrival of the first English colony on the banks of the Ashley River, there was great excitement under the branches of the Liberty Tree over non-importation — the refusal to accept goods in Charles Town on which taxes had been placed by England. An agreement was made under the Liberty Tree which pledged the merchants and mechanics to encourage American manufactures and to refuse to receive British goods. British cargoes arriving in Charles Town were left to rot in the warehouses, the Charles Town merchants not being allowed to sell these goods in the market. This was unjust and worked great hardship upon persons who had bought these goods from English merchants before the non-importation agreement was made. The citizens hoped that by refusing to buy goods taxed by England the mother country could be made to see that they were in earnest. 166. Non-importation Broken by Northern Colonies. Much to the indignation of the South Carolinians, word came that New York and Philadelphia had broken the non-importation agreement. Feeling that non-importation would be useless if continued by South Carolina alone, it was decided to discon- tinue it on all goods, except tea. 167. Parliament Removes Taxes. Despite the breaking down of the non-importation scheme, it accomplished something. The British Parliament repealed the taxes on glass, lead, and all other articles, except tea. The provinces, not to be outdone, determined not to use tea. 168. Montagu Returns. Lord Charles Greville Montagu, who had retired to England on account of ill health, returned in 1771, to resume his office. He was received with much cordiality, but from the beginning he was in trouble with the legislature HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 85 He dissolved it because of its determination to control tlie taxes of the Province. The people, sustaining their legislature, re- turned the same members to the Commons House. Among these were Gadsden, Rutledge, Lynch, Pinckney, and Manigault, men who were prominent in their opposition to the taxes. One struggle after another occurred between the Commons House and the governor, who, finally discour- aged, gave up his oi^ce in 1773. For the fifth time, Lieutenant Governor Bull sat in the governor's chair. 169. The Blockade of Boston. The duty on tea had not been lifted because the English government, not willing to be beaten by the colonies, wislied to as- sert its right to impose taxes upon them. In 1773, three shiploads of tea arrived in Boston. A party of citizens dressed as Indians boarded the ships and threw the chests of tea into the sea. The English government, greatly angered, declared the port of Boston closed and said troops and warships would be sent to prevent all vessels from entering or leaving it. Massa- chusetts appealed to the other provinces to sustain her by mak- ing another non-importation agreement. South Carolina called a meeting in Charles Town of delegates from all parts of the Province. At this gathering, after hot debates, the people refused to agree to non-importation which Massachusetts asked for, because the northern colonists at whose request it had been agreed upon before, had been the first to break it. South Caro- lina, always generous, gave liberally to the blockaded port of Boston. She sent a large sum of money and eighty barrels of rice. South Carolina's gifts to Boston were larger than those of any other province. 170. Anxious to Prevent a Break. By this time it was John Rdtledge, First President of Soutli Carolina, wlio played a large part in winning the independence of the State. 86 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA beginning to be suspected that the northern provinces wished to separate themselves from England. South Carolina, still loyal to the mother country, looked with disfavor upon any such plan. The Stamp Act had been repealed and as yet the Province had suffered no great injury from the taxes. She had merely through sympathy with the northern provinces agreed to non-importa- tion. With these facts in mind, the delegates, assembled in Charles Town, elected five representatives to attend the meeting of the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Anxious to pre- vent a break with England, the delegates suggested that the Congress send some of its members to the mother country to lay the case of the colonies before the British government. A committee of ninety-nine citizens of South Carolina was ap- pointed to look after public affairs. Then the delegates left for their homes. 171. Charles Town "Tea Party." In November, 1774, the merchants of Charles Tom'u, with no disguises and in broad daylight, in the midst of a great gathering of the citizens of the town, threw seven chests of tea which had arrived at the port into the Cooper River. In Georgetown the same thing was done. The people were determined not to use the tea upon which the duty had been placed. 172. The First Continental Congress. New York had issued the call for a Continental Congress. South Carolina had sounded the key note for common cause against England in these ringing words : ' ' The whole country must be animated with one great soul, and all Americans must stand by one another, even unto death." The Congress, representing twelve of the prov- inces, assembled at Philadelphia in September, 1774. On the retirement of Peyton Randolph, its first president, Henry Middleton of South Carolina was chosen to succeed him. The Congress decided not to import goods from England and not to ship to the mother country the products of the provinces. Slaves were among the goods the provinces agreed not to im- ■ port, the southern members raising no objection. Rice, as a HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 87 special favor to South Carolina, was excepted from the list of goods which were not to be sold to England. 173. The Provincial Congress. The committee of ninety- nine citizens of South Carolina called a general meeting of the inhabitants of the Province. The gathering, which met in Charles Town, January 11, 1775, was known as the Provincial Congress. Charles Pinckney was chosen president. At the Provincial Congress the delegates from the Continental Congress reported what that body had done. John Rutledge explained that the South Carolina delegates had insisted that rice be ex- cepted from the list of articles not to be sold to England, because South Carolina sold most of her rice in the mother country, while the northern colonies sold their products to other Euro- pean countries and would be little affected by agreeing not to sell to England. After much debate the meeting approved of what had been done by the Continental Congress. 174. People to Practice Shooting and Pray. Before ending its sessions, the Provincial Congress passed a resolution urging citizens of South Carolina to practice the use of firearms and asking the officers of the militia to drill their men at least once in every two weeks. Then the Congress named a day on which the people were asked to pray God that He would give King George III wisdom to protect their rights and prevent war with England. The Provincial Congress had practically taken con- trol of the Province. 175. The Agreement Kept. In South Carolina, the agree- ment not to ship any goods to England, except rice, and not to use any goods from that country was carefully kept. Ships, arriving from England, were emptied of their cargoes, which were thrown into the sea. Even a cargo of slaves was sent else- where. The private carriage and horses of a citizen were not allowed to be landed, because they came from England. 176. Preparations for War. The news of the battle of Lexington in Massachusetts was received in Charles Town in May, 1775. The Provincial Congress was at once called to meet 88 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA on tlie first of June. Henry Laurens was made president. At this session, the members forbade anyone to ship rice or corn out of the Province, because these crops might be needed to buy guns, powder and ball abroad. It was decided to raise two regiments of infantry of 1,500 men each and a regiment of cavalry rangers of 450 men. These were to be enlisted and subjected to the discipline of British troops. The Provincial Congress agreed to raise an enormous sum in taxes to spend to defend the Province. A Council of Safety was elected and given control of all military affairs. A secret committee, composed of William Henry Dray- ton, Arthur Middleton, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, William Gibbes, and Edward Weyman, was appointed and given large powers, which the committee immediately used to seize arms and powder. CHAPTER XIII THE PROVINCE BECOMES A STATE. 177. Arrival of Lord William Campbell. In June, 1775, Lord William Campbell arrived iu Charles Town on the man- of-war Scorpion, with his commission as governor of South Carolina. His coming marked the last days of the royal govern- ment. The South Carolinians had control of the affairs of the Province. 178. William Bull. Lord William Campbell took the place of Lieutenant Governor William Bull, who had acted as governor so often and so well durng the times when there was no royal governor in the Province. Bull was born in South Carolina, and must have loved the Province, because he served it so faith- fully. But he was always true to the king who appointed him, just as Robert Johnson had been true to the Proprietors. We can imagine how love for South Carolina and loyalty to his king must have torn Bull's heart in the days when his friends and kinsmen were breaking with the king. Bull soon left his native land and went to England where he died a few years later. 179. Raising of Regiments. The Provincial Congress raised the three regiments of troops which had been agreed upon. For the two regiments of infantry, Christopher Gadsden and William Moultrie were elected colonels ; Isaac Motte and Isaac Huger, lieutenant colonels ; Owen Roberts and Alexander Mcintosh, majors; and the following captains: Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Barnard Elliott, Francis Marion, William Cattell, Peter Horry, Daniel Horry, Adam McDonald, Thomas Lynch, Jr., William Scott, John Barnwell, Nicholas Eveleigh, James McDonald, Isaac Harleston, Thomas Pinckney, Francis Huger, William Mason, Edmund Hyrne, Roger Parker Saunders, Charles Motte, and Benjamin Cattell. William Thomson was 89 90 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA chosen lieutenant colonel, and James Mayson, major of the cavalry regiment. Several of the officers of these three regiments had gained military experience and honors in the Cherokee War. 1 80. Seizing of Powder. General George Washington of Virginia had been appointed by the Continental Congress com- mander-in-chief of the American armies. Finding that there was a great lack of powder in America, an appeal was made to the provinces to send him all that could be spared. South Carolina learned that a Brit- ish ship-of-war was expected on the coast with several tons of powder for the Indians. The secret committee in- structed Captains Barnwell and Joyner of Beaufort to seize the vessel. A schooner for them was fitted out by the Georgia Congress. A force of South Carolinians and Georgians put to sea, captured the British vessel, and took all the ammunition. The cavalry meanwhile under Major Mayson seized upon Fort Charlotte on the Savannah River where they captured guns, powder, shot, and lead. These were stored at the town of Ninety Six and a company was left to hold Fort Charlotte. 181. Many Citizens Loyal to England. South Carolina had rushed headlong into the trouble with England without the consent of all her citizens. This was shown when the Provincial Congress called on all citizens to agree not to ship goods to Eng- land and not to use English goods, as provided by the Conti- nental Congress. Twenty-two leading citizens refused to agree. Most of these citizens were or had been officers of the king. It was finally proposed to them to take an oath to be neutral during Brick Mansion Built by Miles Brew- ton IN Chaules Town. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 91 the quarrel. Such as refused this oath either left the Province or were confined to Charles Town after being disarmed. We shall soon see, too, that in the "Back Country" there were many more citizens who had no quarrel with the king and were still loyal to him. 182. "Loyalists" and "Patriots." The people in South Carolina who saw no cause to quarrel with King George III and the English government were called "Loyalists" or "Tories." Those other citizens who saw in the acts of the king and his advisers danger to their liberty and were prepared to fight if necessary were called "Patriots" or later on "Partisans." 183. Treachery in the Up-Country. Captain Moses Kirk- land, who had charge of the powder at Ninety Six, which had been captured at Fort Charlotte by Major Mayson, betrayed the powder into the hands of Major Robinson, a Scotch Loyalist. Kirkland was displeased because he had not been made major in Mayson 's place. In a few days Thomas Fletchall, a colonel of militia, joined Kirkland, Robinson and others in raising the English flag. The Cuningham brothers and Thomas Brown were also prominent in this movement for the king. Fletchall soon gathered 1,500 men, enough to overawe the country from the Broad River to the Savannah River. 184. Men Sent to Up-Country. The Council of Safety sent William Henry Drayton, a lawyer and Patriot of Charles Town, and the Rev. William Tennent, a Presbyterian minister, to the Up- Country to explain to the people the causes of the quarrel between the king and the colonies, and if possible to quiet them. Drayton and Tennent met with poor success. There was little sympathy between the Up-Country and William Henuy Drayton, ^ -r r^ ■ ■ ^ leader anions the Pa- the Low-Country. This was 111 part tnots and First Chief T „ J. ji -1 i! J.1 Justice of the State of due to the jealousy of the poor, south caroiiua. 92 HISTORY OF SOLTH CAROLINA scattered settlements toward the rich, proud city of Charles Town. Moreover, the people of the Up-Country, as we have seen, came from several different countries. The Up-Country felt none of the oppression of the British and saw no real reason for rebelling. 185. Up-Country Apparently Quieted. After talking to the people at a meeting on the Enoree River, Drayton and Tennent heard that the Loyalists were rising. They called out the militia and asked for volunteers. It looked as though bloodshed would surely follow, but the Loyalists were not yet ready for open fighting and their leaders came to Drayton's camp to sue for peace. Drayton next proceeded to pacify the Cherokees to whom he made presents. The Cherokees gave their promise readily, but British agents had already been to the Cherokees, and these promises, like those of the Loyalists, were kept only for a short time. 186. Governor Campbell's Activity. Governor Campbell, while powerless in Charles Town where the Provincial Congress ruled, had not been idle in the Up-Country. John Stuart, whom we heard of when he was captured by the Cherokees after Fort Loudoun surrendered, was now Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the Southern Provinces of North America. Stuart was very loyal to the king. He had a tremendous influence over the Indians and made great efforts to arouse the Cherokees along the South Carolina border against the Patriots. He had an agent named Cameron who lived among the Indians and who took a Cherokee squaw as his wife. Cameron built a fine house for her, clothed her in finery and presented gifts to her countrymen. In this way he obtained a hold over the Cherokees. Governor Campbell wrote secretly to Stuart and Cameron and also to the Cuninghams, Brown, Kirkland, Fletchall, and other Loyalists of the Up-Country. His letters were finally discovered and from that time he was closely watched by the Provincial Congress. Governor Campbell was thus prevented from causing a Loyalist outbreak. HISTOEY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 93 187. Convening of General Assembly. In July, 1775, the General Assembly was convened by Governor Campbell. This, it must be remembered, was under the royal authority, the out- ward show of which was still maintained. The real power in the Province had been taken by the Provincial Congress. No busi- ness was done by the Assembly. ]\Iost of the members of the Commons House were also members of the Provincial Congress or of its Council of Safety or of the committee of ninety-nine. 188. The Taking of Fort Johnson. The revolutionary committees decided to take possession of Fort Johnson. Three Great Seal ur tiii: i'Kt.ivixcE of South CAnoLixA \\ iw. .; Loud William Campbell Took with Him When He Fled. companies of soldiers from the Provincial regiments, led by Lieutenant Colonel Motte, seized the fort on September 15, 1775. The guns of Fort Johnson were promptly trained upon the Cherokee and Tamar, two British armed vessels in Charles Town harbor. 189. Governor Campbell Flees. The next day Governor Campbell dissolved the General Assembly and fled to the Tamar. He carried with him the great seal of the Province. No laws had been passed by the General Asembly during his term of office. His influence in the Up-Country had been mischievous, but he had not been able to take advantage of it for his king. 94 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 190. A South Carolina Flag. Fort Johnson was soon filled with Provincial soldiers and put in fighting order. The troops of the garrison needed a flag. So they made one out of blue cloth and put a white crescent in the upper, right hand corner. This was the first South Carolina flag. igi. Fighting in "Back Country." The unrest in the "Back Country" was increasing. Major Williamson, in charge of the militia of Ninety Six district, had some sharp fighting. A large force of militia, under the command of Colonel Richard Richardson, was ordered to the scene of the trouble. Richard- son's force was increased on the march to 3,000 men. His ap- proach scared the Loyalists who began to disband. Several of their chief men were made prisoners. Colonel Fletchall was found in the hollow of a sycamore tree and others in various hiding places. These leaders were all sent to the Charles Town jail. A force under Colonel Thomson proceeded against Cuningham and easily overcame him. Thus Richardson and Thomson put down the Loyalists in the Up-Country, but only for the time being, as we shall see. The troops these two Patriots commanded suffered greatly from lack of food and from a snow storm which lasted three days. Afterwards this little campaign in the Up-Country was known as "Snow Camp." 192. Pardons Offered Loyalists. Anxious to win over the Loyalists, or at least to quiet them, the Provincial Congress of- fered pardons to all except a few leaders. Many of them ac- cepted pardons. Some refused to do so and fled to Florida where they awaited a time to return to South Carolina. 193. Driving British Warships Away. With the Loyalists in the Up-Country suppressed, the Patriots undertook to drive the British ships of war from Charles Town harbor. These ships seized the merchant vessels as they arrived and took the goods they carried. The Patriots, in a single night, built a battery on Haddrell's Point and mounted some cannon there. A few shots from these cannon drove the British warships down to Sul- livan's Island. As they were allowed neither food nor water. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 95 they soon sailed away. To protect the harbor against other British ships, the Patriots began to buikl a little fort of sand and palmetto logs on Sullivan's Island. 194. The Province Becomes the State. On February 11, 1776, a committee of eleven prominent men of the Province was appointed by the Provincial Congress to draw up a plan of government. News arrived that the British Parliament had authorized the capture of American ships and property. This act of the English Parliament showed that the mother country considered that war had begun. In March, 1776, John Rutledge, from the committee to draw up a plan of government, submitted a Constitution which was adopted. This Constitution ended the rule of England and made the Province an independent State. 195. Plan of State's Government. Under this Constitution the Provincial Congress became the General Assembly of South Carolina, with full power from the people to make laws. In- stead of a governor, the State's Constitution said there should be a President and, instead of a lieutenant governor, a Vice- President. The President of the State was also Commander-in- Chief of the troops of the State. At the head of the courts, there was to be a Chief Justice who had judges to assist him. 196. First Officers of the State. John Rutledge was elected first President and Commander-in-Chief ; Henry Laurens, Vice- President; and William Henry Drayton, Chief Justice. These three Patriots were the first officers of the State of South Carolina. 197. Seven Years of Fighting. Though the State of South Carolina had thus set up its own government, seven long years were to pass and its soil was to run red with blood before Eng- land admitted that her provinces in America were free. In the chapters which follow we shall see that South Carolina played a glorious part in winning its own freedom and that of the twelve other States. The military experience its people gained in fighting the Cherokees was a great aid in finally defeating the British. The wealth of the planters and merchants of the Low- 96 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Country enabled the State to buy war materials. The hardy settlers of the ''Back Country," fighting fiercely for freedom when they were at last aroused, helped change defeat into vic- tory. We must turn now to the Revolutionary War and tell of the seven years of struggle for liberty. CHAPTER XIV THE OPENING OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 198. The British Approach. In May, 1776, President Rut- ledge heard that a British fleet commanded by Sir Peter Parker, with soldiers aboard under Sir Henry Clinton, was approaching Charles Town. The city was greatly excited over the news that South Carolina would be the first of the English provinces in America to be attacked. General Charles Lee, one of the principal officers of the American forces, was sent to take charge. President Rutledge ordered out the militia, guns were fired to give the alarm, and the fortifications of the city were strength- ened. Lead weights were taken from the windows of the houses to be cast into musket balls. The public records and the printing presses were moved out of the town. 199. Fort on Sullivan's Island. Sullivan's Island guarded the entrance to the harbor of Charles Town. On this island was the little fort built of two parallel walls of palmetto logs with the space between filled with sand. The rear of the fort and the eastern side were unfinished. For that reason General Lee wished to withdraw the troops from it to the city, but President Rutledge was not willing to abandon the fort. Colonel William Moultrie was put in command of it. 200. Breach Inlet. Sullivan's Island and Long Island (now named the Isle of Palms) are separated by an arm of the sea called Breach Inlet. It was the plan of the British to land Sir Henry Clinton's soldiers on Long Island to cross this inlet and attack the fort on Sullivan's Island in the rear while the fleet in front would begin firing upon it from the sea. Soon after the British ships sailed into Charles Town harbor, Clinton landed with 2,220 men and threw up earth works on the Long Island side of the inlet. To prevent the British from crossing to 97 98 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Sullivan's Island, there were only 780 South Carolinians com- manded by Colonel William Thomson. 201. The Battle, On June 28, 1776, the British fleet opened fire on the fort. The ships anchored in two parallel lines and began a heavy bombardment. Most of the shells buried them- selves in the soft palmetto logs of the fort and did little damage. The Battle of Fort Moultrie as Shown by an Old Print. The garrison of the fort turned their cannon upon the two larg- est of the enemy ships and so heavy was their fire that at one time during the day it was thought that the two ships would be destroyed. One of these vessels carried both Lord William Camp- bell, the royal governor of South Carolina, and Sir Peter Parker. Lord William Campbell was wounded and twice the quarter- deck was cleared of every person except Sir Peter Parker. About mid-day three of the British ships tried to pass the fort to attack from the rear. This would have meant defeat, for the rear of the fort was unfinished. Fortunately for the Carolinians, the ships stuck fast upon a sand bar. 202. Defending Breach Inlet. As soon as the British fleet opened fire. Sir Henry Clinton started to cross Breach Inlet to attack the fort by land. He had a number of small boats to HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 99 support his soldiers while crossing. The boats advanced but Col- onel Thomson's men protected by trenches opened a fire which raked the decks so that the British could not be kept at their posts. The boats turned back and along with them the soldiers who were wading the inlet. 203. Sergeant Jasper. During the battle the flag staff of the fort was shot away. The flag fell outside the walls. A young sergeant named Jasper leaped over the ramparts and rescued the flag. Tearing it from the broken staff, he returned with it and amidst a storm of shot and shell fixed it again over the fort. Standing on the ramparts, he gave three cheers for the flag and returned to his gun unhurt. After the battle when President Rutledge visited the fort, he took his own sword from his side and gave it to Sergeant Jasper for his bravery in rescuing the flag. 204. Victory. About nine o'clock at night the British ceased firing and the fleet retired. The battle had ended in victory for South Carolina. This battle, now called the Battle of Fort Moul- trie in honor of Colonel Moultrie who was in command of the fort, was one of the greatest victories of the Revolution. The very fact that the large British fleet had been defeated by un- trained men in a little fort built of sand and logs inspired South Carolinians and all American Patriots with joy and confidence. Many who before this battle held back were en- couraged to come forward to fight for liberty. South Carolinians had by themselves fought the battle and won the victory. The glory of Fort Moultrie is due entirely to the bravery of the State's own sons. 205. Declaration of Independence. On the very day that the Battle of Fort Moultrie was being fought, the Con- Thomas lynch, jr., T->i -1 T 1 1 • T 1 • Signer of thp Declaration gress m Philadelphia was debating a of independence. 100 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Declaration of Independence of England. Edward Rutledge (brother of President John Rutledge), Thomas Lynch and his son, Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton, and Thomas Hey- ward, Jr., were the five South Carolinians at the Congress. So many South Carolinians did not want to separate from England that these delegates disliked to agree to do it. It was with many misgivings that on July 4, 1776, they signed their names to the Declaration of Independence. At this time they did not know that England had already begun the war against them by firing on Fort Moultrie. 206. Treaty with France. The Congress in Philadelphia now made a treaty with France. In this treaty France rec- ognized the independence of America and said she would help us to gain our freedom from England. 207. Loyalist and Indian Uprising. On the same day that the Battle of Fort IMoultrie was fought, the Indians and Loyalists started trouble in the Up-Country of South Carolina. The up- rising was met by Colonel Andrew Williamson who was in charge of the defense of the Up-Country. Marching through the Indian settlements, Williamson destroyed their crops and villages. Five hundred of the Cherokee warriors fled to Florida. The Chero- kee nation begged for peace. They were compelled by William- son to give up large tracts of their land which now form the flourishing counties of Greenville, Anderson, Oconee and Pickens. 208. War in the North. After their failure to take Charles Town, the British decided to conquer the North flrst and then attack the South again. For more than two years after the Battle of Fort Moultrie, the war was carried on in the northern States. During this time Arthur Middleton. South Carolina escaped most of the suf- Signpr of (ho Decla nation r? • n j_ .^ i i of Independence. lermgs 01 war cxccpt thosc causcd by HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 101 esi^S^fei- A Carolina Wagon. the Indians and the Loyalists. Charles Town developed a great trade. Because the English warships along the Atlantic coast prevented some of our ships from sailing, a large overland trade sprang up. More than a thousaiid wagons were used in hauling rice and other goods from South Carolina to States as far north as New Jersey. 209. Rutledge Resigns. John Rut- ledge resigned as president of South Caro- lina in 1778. Rawlins Lowndes, who had long been prominent, was elected the second President of the State. Rutledge gave up his office rather than agree to a Constitution for South Carolina adopted in 1778. This Constitution declared that England should no longer govern the State. Rutledge wanted England tQ right her wrongs to South Carolina, but he did not want the State to separate en- tirely from England. The Constitution of 1778 also said that in place of the Council appointed by the king there should be a Senate elected by the people. This new Constitution took away from the Church of England (the Episcopal Church) all share in the government of South Carolina and all support from the tax money. CHAPTER XV BRITISH CAPTURE CHARLES TOWN 210. The British Return to South. In the autumn of 1778, two years after the Battle of Fort Moultrie, the British decided to carry the war again into the South. They had been unsuc- cessful in the North. The British also needed the products of the Southern States — rice, indigo and hides — which they had for a long time depended upon. South Carolina, with her big crops and her trade with the West Indies, had been supplying the Northern States with food. "War in the South would put an end to this trade. Then, too. General George Washington, com- mander of the American forces, would be unable to reach the Southern States in time to help them ; for the British ships con- trolled the sea and a long time would be required for an army to march over the wild, uninhabited country which lay between the North and South. The British also thought that there were many Loyalists in South Carolina and Georgia who would flock to their flag when the great British army was there to protect them. 211. Weakness of the State. South Carolina was in a poor condition to meet the British. She had supplied 4,080 men to fight in the North. These men could not reach her now. Her militia was undependable, because the law only required sixty days' service a year. The State had in all only about 1,200 men to fight the British. Colonel John Laurens, son of Henry Laurens, the president of the Continental Congress, and Colonel Charles Cotesworth Pinckney who were botli serving as aides-de- camp to George Washington, hurried to the State when they learned of the proposed invasion by the British. Count Pulaski, a gallant Pole, came with his small Legion. This was all the help which came from the North. 102 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 103 212. South Carolina on Guard. In December, 1778, the British captured Savannah. This opened the way to South Caro- lina. The Loyalists poured out of Florida into Georgia waiting greedily to follow the British into South Carolina. General Benjamin Lincoln was placed in command of the army in South Carolina. Military camps were established at Orangeburgh, Purrysburgh and Black Swamp. 213. March to Augusta John Rutledge became first gover- nor of the State of South Carolina in 1779, succeeding President Rawlins Lowndes. The British, commanded by General Pre- vost, still hung upon the borders of the State and General Lin- coln in the Spring of 1779 decided to march into Georgia against the British instead of waiting for them to come into South Caro- lina. He left Colonel Moultrie in command to prevent the enemy from crossing the Savannah River to move against Charles Town. When Lin- coln had marched 150 miles up the Savannah, the British, under General Prevost, crossed the river and pressed toward Charles Town. Moultrie tried to stop the advance, but was outnum- bered four to one in troops. Couriers were sent in haste to urge Lincoln's return. 214. Preparations for Defense. Prevost 's march toward Charles Town was marked by all the horrors of war. The Indians and Loyalists scattered through the country in search of houses belonging to wealthy families. They sacked, burned and robbed. Houses were plundered of ^.^,,^^,^ moult.ie, their silver, slaves were carried off Commander of Fort Moultrie and women brutally treated. As chir^eT Town! ''"''''''"'■" "* 104 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA soon as they learned of the danger to llieir families, men under Moultrie 's command hurried to their homes. Nothing could stop them. Before Moultrie reached Charles Town, half of his army had deserted him to protect their homes. But Moultrie with the remnant of his army hastened on to the city. Governor John Rutledge hurried down with 600 men he had gathered at Orange- burgh. Lincoln sent 250 in advance of his own march. All these troops reached the city before the British and stood at arms all night expecting attack. / 215. Prevost's Retreat. Governor Rutledge knew that his small force could not long keep Prevost out of the city, but he refused to surrender and prepared for attack. Fortunately, a letter from Lincoln telling of his approach fell into Prevost's hands and he, fearing to be caught in a trap between the troops in the city and those under Lincoln, retreated to the sea islands. For the second time Charles Town had escaped. 216. Sir Henry Clinton Arrives. Sir Henry Clinton, who was commander-in-chief of the British forces in America, now determined to come and take Charles Town himself. In the meantime, Lincoln's army had returned to Charles Town and been united with the force under Moul- trie. Clinton arrived in February, 1780, with 13,000 picked troops and a strong fleet. He placed his men on the sea islands and finally crossed Ashley River to Charles Town Neck. The garrison in Charles Town consisted of not more than 4,000 men. At the time of Clinton's arrival his ships of war sailed into the harbor of Charles Town. 217. The Siege Begins. On April 12, the British called on Charles Town to surrender. This was refused and the attack began. The British continued to advance down Charles Town Neck until within a week they were within 300 yards of the city. Sir Henry Clinton, Comma ndor-in-Chief of the British Forces, who captured Charles Town in 1780. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 105 The Carolinians realized that it was hopeless to continue to defend the town. Clinton renewed his former terms of sur- render, but was again refused. Though he was now a very old man, Gabriel Manigault, the rich Charles Town merchant, came one day to the city's defenses leading his fifteen year old nephew. The old man offered himself and the boy as soldiers to defend the city. Charles Town was by this time on the point of starvation. The food on hand was not enough to last a week. There was no prospect of reinforcements or supplies. The British ships in the harbor as well as the army in the rear of the town united finally in one great attack. Shells fell in every quarter, setting fire to many houses. The British troops were in speaking distance of the defenses of Charles Town and their rifles were never fired without finding a mark. The defenders could no longer show themselves above the lines with safety, A hat raised on a cane was instantly riddled with bullets. Still the city held out. 218. Surrender. On May 12, the British advanced within twenty-five yards of the city. All further defense was hope- less and meant useless loss of men. Lincoln was obliged to sur- render. For nearly three months, with less than 4,000 ill-fed, ill-clad and undisciplined men he had held the city, the lines of which required at least three times that number to man them. He had withstood 13,000 of the best troops in the British service, headed by their greatest generals, and aided by a fleet. CHAPTER XVI THE RISING OF THE PARTISANS 219. In British Hands. The members of the militia cap- tured in Charles Town were allowed to return to their homes on parole. The Continental soldiers were held in Charles Town as prisoners. The citizens of the city were also regarded as prisoners of war. Before the surrender, Governor Rutledge escaped from the city by night and made his way to North Carolina. About a dozen of the Continental officers and soldiers were not captured, this number being absent on sick leave or on expeditions into the country at the time of the surrender. The cause seemed so hopeless that the militia all over the State now surrendered of their own free will. All felt that the war was over. The chief city had fallen. The Continental soldiers were imprisoned in Charles Town and nearly every one else was under parole. The Patriot cause in South Carolina was represented by one man, Governor Rutledge, who was in hiding in North Caro- lina. Well might Sir Henry Clinton write back to London, "I may venture to assert that there are few men in South Carolina who are not either our prisoners or in arms with us." 220. Guarding the State. So certain was Clinton that South Carolina was conquered that he returned to New York, leaving Lord Cornwallis in command. Cornwallis established himself at Camden as it was a central point in the State. At the same time he stationed soldiers at Ninety Six, Augusta, Beaufort and Savannah and at numerous other posts over the State. Charles Town^ of course, was held by Cornwallis under military control. The citizens in the neighborhood of the British posts hurried to surrender and thus gain the protection that had been granted those in Charles Town. 221. Tarleton's Cruelty. Nearly everyone, as we see, felt 106 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 107 that the State had been conquered and that the sensible thing to do was to take advantage of the protection offered by the British. No one intended to make further efforts against tlie enemy. But something now occurred which roused the conquered people of South Carolina to renew the fight. This was the massacre of Buford's men. Colonel Bu- ford, who was a Virginia officer, was hurrying with 400 men to help Charles Town. While on the way he heard of the surrender and turned back toward North Carolina. Corn- wallis learned of his whereabouts and sent Colonel Tarleton after him. Tarleton came upon Buford in the Waxhaws district. A battle followed in which Buford's men were butchered like cattle. Tarleton gave no quarter, showed no mercy. Wounded men who had fallen were mutilated while still alive. The battle was equal to any Indian massacre in its awful brutality. " Tarleton 's Quarter" became a by- word in South Caro- lina. The men of the Up-Country, many of whom were lukewarm toward the Patriot cause, were shocked and angered by Tarleton 's frightful cruelty. 222. The British Policy. Soon it seemed to the people of South Carolina that " Tarleton 's Quarter" was all they could expect from the British even though they had been promised protection when they surrendered. In every part of the State the British began plundering. The soldiers were allowed to commit any crimes they chose. Churches were burned and ministers insulted. Slaves were run off and shipped to the West Indies. The British commanders openly shared in the plunder. Regular stores were opened in which the stolen goods were sold. 223. Effect of the British Policy. At this point, Lord Cornwallis fanned the flames of resentment to fever heat by Tarleton, the British Com- mander, Whosp crnolty aroused the men of the Up-Country. 108 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA issuing an order that all Carolinians under parole were released and must now fight for the king. The brutality of Tarleton had impressed itself deeply upon the minds of the people of the Up- Country. The entire State was alarmed by the outrageous plundering of the British army. But what few South Caro- linians could bear was the idea of being forced to join the British army and fight against the other American States. The effect of the British policy was thus to force South Carolinians into making a desperate effort to drive the enemy away. Being re- leased from their paroles to the British, many determined to fight for their liberty instead of joining with the British against their sister States. Governor Rutledge went to Philadelphia to beg help from the Congress. New leaders sprang up in every corner and gathered little bands of Patriots around them. These Patriots were called Partisans. The three greatest of the Partisan leaders were Marion, Sumter and Pickens. These names should be household words in South Carolina. To the Partisans we owe in large part the overthrow of the British in South Carolina and the freedom of the United States. 224. General Marion. P^rancis Marion was born in Berkeley County in 1732. He had fought in the Cherokee War and had been one of the defenders of Fort Moultrie. He was in Charles Town when Prevost besieged the city, had fought at Savannah and was in Charles Town at the time of Clinton's siege. He was absent from Charles Town on sick leave when the city was surrendered, and thus escaped capture. As Cornwallis advanced to Camden to establish his posts over the General Francis Marion, State, Marion went into North Carolina. "Tho Swamp Pox," fnmons Marion was small in size but he was on^ tiio nriHsirarKi'for hardy and strong. His features were whcn^nirsued.*'' ''^'''*^'' ^^crn and he had little to say. He HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 109 trained his men rigidly, but they loved him and were always ready to follow him into the thickest of the fight. He had a marked gift for strategy and became famous for his surprise attacks upon the British. After these attacks he would lose himself in the swamps so that the British could not find him. Because of this mode of fighting he became known as "The Swamp Fox." Marion wore a short red jacket. A silver crescent was fastened on his leather cap. His men wore white badges on their caps so that they might know each other in battle. Marion seldom had more than seventy -five men and usually not a third that number. Each of his followers rode his own horse and some carried swords made by the village black- smiths out of saws from the sawmills. Some, lacking swords, carried pitchforks. Some had rifles, but often their powder horns were empty. They were all woodsmen. Sometimes the forests were alive with their signals — the hoot of the owl or the screech of a wildcat — given in warning of the approach of the enemy. 225. General Pickens. Andrew Pickens was a Scotchman and came to the Waxhaws district with his parents when a child. He had fought along with Marion in the Cherokee War and in the early struggles of the Revolution in the Low-Country. He surrendered after the fall of Charles Town and gave his parole. Soon after doing so, the British raided his plantation, carried off his horses and destroyed his property, where- upon Pickens took up the fight against the British although he knew that if ever cap- tured he would be hanged. Pickens wore his hair in a queue. His pistols glittered with silver trimmings and he wore silver spurs and a three cornered hat. He was a brave gentleman and officer. ^''''''^^^^.t^J'''^^ ^ 1 ICKENS, 226. General Sumter. Thomas Sumter Partisan leader dur- was born in Virginia, but had come to South tkfn. ^^^^ ^evoiu- 110 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Carolina as an Indian trader about the time of the Cherokee War and later settled on the Santee River as a planter. He had been a member of the Provincial Congress and had served with Thomson in keeping Clinton from crossing Breach Inlet at the Battle of Fort Moultrie. As Tarleton in- vaded the Up-Country, he burned Sum- ter's house and destroyed his property, but Sumter, like Marion, escaped into North Carolina. Sumter was a large man, over six feet tall and of great strength. He seemed to have no sense of fear whatsoever and his reckless- ness got him into many a tight place from which he always escaped in some fashion. For his daring bravery, he be- came known as "The Gamecock." Sumter's followers were the woodsmen of the Up-Country. They would be strange figures beside our trim khaki- clad soldiers for they wore woolen hunting shirts made by the women of their families, breeches of deerskin, Indian moccasins on their feet and caps of some animal's skin on their heads. Sometimes their caps were decorated with the tail of a raccoon. They carried any weapons they could find from a pitchfork to a hunting knife. Sumter was their idol. He exacted the ut- most obedience from them. 227. The Three Great Partisans. These three, Sumter, Marion and Pickens, were the three great Partisans. It fell to them to lead the Patriots in driving the British out of the State. In the six months following the capture of Charles Town, Gover- nor Rutledge made all three of them brigadier generals. Sum- ter was put in command of the militia of the entire State. Marion was given command of the Lower Brigade and Pickens of the Upper Brigade. These were the greatest Partisans, but there was scarcely a settlement in the Up-Country which could General Thomas Sdmtek, "The Gamecock." famed for his reckless daring in leading the Partisans. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 111 not boast a gallant Partisan leader under whom the Patriots of the neighborhood fought to rid South Carolina of the enemy. 228. What We Owe the Partisans. The scene of the fighting was now in the Peedee and Up-Country. The Partisans lingered about the British posts, cutting off supplies, picking off small bands of the enemy, and annoying them in every possible way. For eighteen months we shall see them steadily, though with many discouraging failures, driving the British from their posts farther and farther into the Low-Country until by the end of 1781, they have them cooped up in Charles Town. It is not too much to say that without the Partisan leaders of South Carolina the independence of the United States would never have been gained. CHAPTER XVII THE PARTISANS TURN THE TIDE. 229. Ready to Renew Fight. Within six weeks after the fall of Cliarles Town, when everyone thought the war over, South Carolina was again in arms against the enemy. There was no regular army, it is true, and there was no pay or cloth- ing or rations. Nor were there any properly commissioned of- ficers. But hundreds of brave Patriots had sprung up like the dragon's teeth from the soil and Cornwallis is said to have remarked that behind every bush was a rebel. The Patriots had to supply themselves with whatever weapons they could find. Often they made bullets by melting pewter vessels given them by housewives. Sometimes they went into battle with less than three rounds of powder to a man and frequently half had to wait at a distance until they could be supplied with arms from their fallen comrades or enemies. 230. Partisan Leaders Return. Sumter returned from North Carolina. The legislature of that State had given him the arms and supplies captured in a Loyalist battle. He established a camp in Lancaster County and gathered around him the Patriots of the neighborhood. He was to be a terror now to the British and Loyalists who held the country between the Saluda and the Catawba rivers. Marion returned from North Carolina about the same time that Sumter did. Hearing of the outrages com- mitted by the enemy in the Peedee section, he decided to go there where houses had been burned, plantations laid waste and many murders committed. He made his camp on Snow Island in the big swamp where Lynches River joins the Great Peedee River. The island was covered with thick woods and canes in which he could hide his men and horses. This camp was chosen also because it was near the road over which the 112 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 113 British sent supplies from Charles Town to their posts in the Up- Country. The position would give Marion a good chance to try to capture the provision wagons as they passed on the road south of his camp. 231. Twelve Battles. We know of twelve battles which took place in July and August, 1780, in which about 500 British and Tories were killed or taken prisoners. The first of these was in York County at Williamson's plantation which was held by Captain Huck, a British sol- dier noted for the number of planta- tions he had ruined and the cruelty of his men. Sumter sent a force under Colonel Bratton and Captain McClure to attack Huck. Not expecting an enemy, Huck and his men had stopped in a lane. Sumter's men divided into two forces and entered the lane from both ends. Huck was killed and his troops fled. Another fight took place at Cedar Springs in Spartanburg County, where the British were defeated, another at Rocky Mount in Chester County where Sumter fought gallantly, but was unsuccessful and another at Hanging Rock in Lancaster County where he totally defeated the British. By this time, Sumter had gathered around him about 600 men. The last of the twelve engagements was at Port's Ferry in Marion County, where Marion surprised and defeated a body of British and Tories. These are the only twelve engagements recorded, but there was scarcely a thicket or swamp in the Peedee section, the Waxhaws or the country between the Saluda and the Catawba rivers in which there was not a skirmish. 232. Help From the North. The great news now came from the North that the Congress was sending 1,400 soldiers under General Gates to help South Carolina. It had been hoped Thomas Heyward, Jr., Signer of the Declaration of Independence. 114 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA that they would arrive in time to save Charles Town, but with only the poorest sort of wagon roads through a thinly settled country the march had been so slow that they were just now arriving. The soldiers of Gates were half fed, badly clothed and worn out from the long, hard march. Their coming was hailed with great joy by the Partisans who felt that with their help they could meet the British army in open battle and drive the enemy from the State. 233. The Battle of Camden. General Gates determined to attack Camden where Cornwallis had placed Lord Rawdon in The Battle of Camden. command. Gates was advised to wait until his men had rested, but nothing could stop him, and he marched straight toward Camden, halting on August 13 at Clermont. He showed no caution in his march and did not think it necessary to find out where the enemy was located. Learning of the approach of Gates, Cornwallis had left Charles Town with fresh troops and by rapid marches had reached Camden. Gates did not know that at the very time he was leaving Clermont to attack Camden Cornwallis was advancing to meet him with 2,000 soldiers. Gates had not given himself a chance to find out anything. The armies HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 115 116 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA met at dawii on August 16. The day ended in the utter defeat of Gates. His artillery was lost, his cavalry was swallowed up in the woods, and about 200 of his wagons were taken by the British. The brave Baron DeKalb was killed and Gates fled. South Carolina was in worse condition than before he came to its aid. 234. Sumter's Disaster. To make matters more serious, Sumter and his men were attacked by Colonel Tarleton at Fish- ing Creek. In the battle, the Partisan force was nearly wiped out. Tarleton 's attack was so unexpected that not a Carolinian was standing to arms. Tarleton threw his men between them and their rifles. The slaughter was frightful, the loss in killed and wounded being nearly as great as that suffered by Gates at Camden. Sumter himself fortunately escaped before Tarleton could capture him. 235. Cornwallis Takes Revenge. As a lesson to South Carolina for taking up arms again, Cornwallis hanged numbers of the prisoners captured at Camden and elsewhere. Sometimes he did not even give them a trial. Many private citizens were made prisoners and put on board prison ships in Charles Town harbor where most of them died of dreadful diseases without re- ceiving medical aid. After the defeat of Gates, Cornwallis took sixty of the most prominent citizens of South Carolina and sent them to St. Augustine in Florida as prisoners. Among them were Christopher Gadsden, the hot-headed Patriot who had done so much to bring on the Revolutionary War ; Edward Rutledge, a signer of the Declaration of Independence ; and Dr. David Ramsay, the beloved physician and historian. 236. Cornwallis Goes to North Carolina. The British plan, as we know, was to fight from the South to the North. Lord Cornwallis, feeling certain that after the defeat of Gates and Sumter and the lianging and imprisonment of so many patriotic South Carolinians he had utterly crushed the State, now marched into North Carolina. He took the town of Charlotte and made that his headquarters. General Sumter gathered HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 117 Sword Used In Revolution. what men he could and camped as near Charlotte as he dared. "The Gamecock's" men crept al- most into the camp of Cornwallis and, hiding behind shrubs and trees, picked off his sentinels with their rifles. 237. Fights in South Carolina Fighting was still going on in a small way in South Caro- lina. Marion rescued about 150 prisoners cap- tured from Gates at Camden. He took the guns from the British guards who were escorting the prisoners to Charles Town. Then he armed some of the Patriot prisoners and hurried his British prisoners into North Carolina. Marion then heard that the British were burning and destroying property in the Peedee section. So he returned to his camp on Snow Island and from there ventured against the British, defeating them in small battles at Black Mingo and at Tarcote Swamp in Williamsburg County. 238. Musgrove's Mills. About the time of the crushing de- feat of Gates at Camden, Colonel Shelby of North Carolina with Colonel Clarke of Georgia, and Colonel Williams of South Caro- lina attacked the British post at Musgrove's Mills in what is now Laurens County. IThey won a great victory, killing or capturing many of the enemy. Right after the battle, the three Patriot colonels heard that Gates had been crushed at Camden and that Colonel Ferguson was coming in pursuit of them. So they re- treated with their prisoners into the mountains of North Caro- lina. Some crossed the mountains to Watauga Camp in Tennes- see. Colonel Ferguson could not catch them, but he sent a mes- senger to say that if the mountaineers did not lay down their arms he would go into the mountains, hang their leaders and burn their cabins. 239. Mountaineers Aroused. Ferguson's threat, far from searing the Patriots among the mountain men, made them decide to gather a force to attack him. Ferguson seems to have had no 118 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA idea of going into the mountains ; for, after lingering awhile in North Carolina, he went back into South Carolina and started to march slowly to Charlotte, North Carolina, to join the main British army under Cornwallis. From the mountains of Vir- ginia, North Carolina and what is now Tennessee, small bodies of Patriots, mounted on horses, set out in pursuit of Colonel Ferguson. These mounted Patriots united in North Carolina and rode across into South Carolina. At Cowpens about 910 of the Patriots, those with the best horses, were selected to hasten after Ferguson who had 1,500 well drilled Loyalists under his command, but no regular British soldiers. The British leader sent two messages to Cornwallis to ask aid, but neither message reached him. After leaving Cowpens, the Patriot leaders made Colonel Campbell of Virginia their commander and divided their men into four bodies under him, under Colonel Shelby of North Carolina, Colonel Sevier of Tennessee and Colonel Cleveland of North Carolina. Of Cleveland's men about 100 were South Carolinians, natives of Chester and York Counties, who had fought under General Sumter and were now commanded by Colonel Edward Lacey and Colonel William Hill, two of his officers. 240. Battle of King's Mountain. On October 7, 1780, Col- onel Ferguson's force was found by the Patriots on top of King's Mountain, a rocky ridge in York County. Here Ferguson had made his camp though his officers had asked him not to do so as the top of the mountain was narrow and bare of trees, making it hard to defend. The four bodies of Patriots decided to surround the steep hill and attack Ferguson from all sides. Colonel Campbell carefully explained to the leaders and their men how they were to take up their positions, and told any man who was frightened to leave the ranks at once before the fight began. Carrying out Colonel Campbell's orders, the leaders marched at the head of their men to their places. The British did not see them until they were within a quarter of a mile of King's Mountain. Then the drums beat and Ferguson, with HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 119 his shrill silver whistle, summoned his men to meet the attack. The Patriots under Shelby and Campbell began the fight while their comrades under Cleveland and Sevier were still hastening around the foot of the mountain to reach the places from which they were to attack. Campbell 's men had to climb the mountain on its steepest side. They suffered greatly while scrambling up A Plan of the Battle of King's Mountain, At which the Patriots won a great victory over the British. the rocky cliffs. Three times the British forces charged as they reached the top and three times Campbell's men were forced back into the shelter of the trees on the mountain's side. Shel- by's men also suffered, but like Campbell's they refused to run. Sevier and Cleveland gallantly carried on their half of the battle. Steadily the Patriots pressed toward the top of the mountain, ringing the British around with their rifles. Some of the Patriots fought on foot and some on horseback. Lacey's horse was shot under him. A thick cloud of smoke hung over the top of the mountain as the Patriots closed in on Ferguson. The British commander fought bravely. He was wounded in 120 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA the right hand, but he rode recklessly from place to place en- couraging and cheering his men. Above all the firing and the shouts of the battle, Ferguson 's silver whistle sounded clear and shrill. As the Patriots advanced, a white flag was raised twice by the British at different places in token of surrender. Each time Colonel Ferguson cut the flag down with his sword, vowing that he would never surrender to the despised mountain men. At last, even Ferguson saw that the Patriots had won. Riding his horse at a gallop and slashing with his sword which he held in his left hand, Ferguson tried to escape, and was killed. A white flag was raised in the British lines, but some of the Patriots would not cease firing until the British threw down their guns and asked for mercy. In the battle, the British loss was terrible. Thirteen hundred of them were killed, wounded or captured. Fifteen hundred guns were among the spoils taken "by the Patriots. The loss of the mountain men in killed and wounded was very small, due to the protection they had had from rocks and trees as they climbed up the sides of the mountain. 241. Cornwallis Returns. Cornwallis hurried back into South Carolina as soon as he heard of the Battle of King's Mountain, because it proved that South Carolina was still unconquered. Marion had been so active in capturing British supply wagons that Cornwallis' first act was to send Tarleton after him. Try as he would, though, Tarleton could not find him, for Marion knew that Tarleton had a large force and hid from him. 242. Sumter Wounded. Tarleton, bogged in the swamps, finally said to his men "Come and let's go after 'The Game- Battlefield on King's i j o -, •^ t • . Mountain and monu- cock, lor the devil himself could not MENT Erected by the j. i j.i • ^J £ >> o 1 j. ixr • . National Government. catch this old tox. So he sent MajOr HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 121 "Weymys after Sumter who was encamped at Fishdam Ford on the Chester County side of Broad River. Weymys fell into Sumter's hands. In his pocket was found a list of the houses he had burned in the Peedee section. At this Tarleton himself went after Sumter. He came upon him at Blackstocks in Union County, Learning that all of Tarleton 's men had not come up with him, Sumter began the fight. The result was victory for "The Gamecock," though he received wounds which disabled him for a time. This was a great loss to the Partisans. Corn- wallis congratulated Tarleton upon disabling Sumter, saying that the latter had certainly been his "greatest plague in this country. ' ' 243. Colonel Washington's Victories. Colonel William Washington captured in December a British post under Colonel Rugeley near Camden. The post was a stockade of logs guarded by about 100 men. Washington had no cannon to batter down the walls. So he had a pine log hewn to the shape and size of a cannon, mounted it on a pair of wagon wheels and brought it up in front of the stockade. Rugeley surrendered at the first summons and was nearly laughed out of the British army after- ward because he let Colonel Washington trick him. Colonel Washington won two other victories the same month, one in Abbeville County at Hammond's Store and the other in York County at Williamson's plantation. 244. Arrival of General Greene, News came that the Con- gress was sending General Nathaniel Greene to take command of what was left of Gates' army. Since his defeat at Camden Gates had been idle in North Carolina with the remnant of his army. No one felt very joyful over Greene's coming for he brought no soldiers with him. 245. What Partisans Did in 1780, The year 1780 was now at its close. During the year there had been thirty-four battles fought in the State and fighting one day in four. In only eight of these battles had there been any Continental troops, while the other twenty-six had been fought by the Partisans alone and 122 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA unaided. After each battle the Partisans would return to their homes to see after their families, meeting again on some fixed day. They had killed, wounded or captured 2,486 of the British soldiers and had kept Cornwallis from carrying out his plan of conquering the other Southern States and then marching to join the British in the North. The British still had 5,000 men, not counting Loyalists, stationed at their posts in South Carolina at the end of 1780. CHAPTER XVIII THE PARTISANS CAPTURE BRITISH POSTS 246. The Battle of Cowpens. The first important battle in the campaign of 1781 took place at Cowpens in Cherokee County when Colonel Daniel Morgan, a Continental officer, was attacked by the notorious Colonel Tarleton. Morgan's men were on the crest of a sloping field, Down the slope in front stood General Andrew Pickens and his riflemen. Just before the battle began, Pickens went from man to man giving orders that every third man should fire when the British got within fifty yards of them while the other two riflemen held back their fire. Pickens said that each man must try his best to kill a British officer. At sunrise Tarleton advanced, his two cannon opening fire to pro- tect his men. Pickens' soldiers hid behind the trees on the slope and as the British came near their rifles spoke. The British officers were marked by their uniforms and trappings and fell fast before the deadly aim of Pickens' men. So many were killed that the British line broke. Tarleton rallied some of his soldiers. They advanced with fixed bayonets and met Morgan at the top of the slope but the force of the attack had been broken by Pickens' riflemen, and the Patriots were victorious. One third of the British soldiers were lost in this battle. The chief part in winning the day was played by Andrew Pickens and his men. 247. Marion at Work. After the battle of Cowpens, Mor- gan and Pickens retreated into North Carolina pursued by Cornwallis himself. General Greene followed Cornwallis. Sum- ter was in North Carolina recovering from his wounds received at Blackstocks. So IMarion was now the most important of the Partisan fighters left in South Carolina. He was busy as usual. From his camp on Snow Island he went out almost every day to 123 124 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA fight the British. Marion had with him very able and gallant officers, such as the two Horrys, the two Postells, James, Conyers and McCottry, all of whom became famous for their daring. They were at this time especially active in capturing the wagons loaded with food going to the British post at Georgetown. Every night Marion sent out men to hunt down the British parties, Marion himself with a few men attacked a British wagon train guarded by three or four hundred men as it passed Halfway Swamp in what is now Clarendon County. The British re- treated and their heavy baggage fell into Marion's hands. In fact, Marion was doing the British so much harm that in March, 1781, they made a united effort to destroy him and his men. The British made it so hot for Marion that he decided to retreat into North Carolina. His men did not have enough arms or powder. They had little food, sometimes living for days on roasted sweet potatoes. Marion heard that General Greene was returning from North Carolina with his army so he was filled with fresh hope and encouraged to hold out. 248. Sumter at Work. While Marion was busy in the Peedee section, Sumter had recovered from his wounds and re- turned to South Carolina. He first attacked the British post at Granby just across the Congaree River from the present city of Columbia. He had cut off the supplies and subdued the fort when Lord Rawdon appeared with a large force on the west side of the river and Sumter, after destroying the supplies, had to retreat, going finally to the Waxhaws with the Brit- ish at his heels. 249. Harden Fights in Low-Country. With Marion in the Peedee was a brave of- ficer named William Harden. St. David's Church, Historic Build- He was from the Beaufort ING IN CHERAW, T • A U 1\1^ ' Used as a hospital during the Revolution. district and whcu Marion HISTOEY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 125 took the Peedee as his field Harden joined him. with a small band of Patriots who became famed for their daring. Going farther and farther into the Low-Country, Harden worried the British in every possible way. He was the first to dare to take the field between Savannah and Charles Town ; for this part of the State was thought to be entirely in the hands of the enemy. In March, 1781, he left Marion and made camp on a little island in the Ashepoo River. He had with him not more than seventy- five men. Almost daily he succeeded in taking prisoners from under the very eyes of the enemy. After the first week's fighting his prisoners outnumbered his men. During this week he was in Greene's Akmy in Camp in South Carolina. four fights and in one captured Fort Balfour at Pocotaligo, a British post with 100 men. This daring fighting fairly rivaled that of Sumter and Marion. Harden gave the British so much trouble that they determined to crush him. Harden was at- tacked at Wiggins' Hill. He was so outnumbered that he had to retire. The British captured some of his men whom they treated with savage brutality. This only served to rouse Harden 's band to vengeance. 126 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 250. Greene Returns. Sumter at this time sent Wade Hampton, who now joined the Partisans, to North Carolina to urge General Greene to come back into South Carolina. Greene had met Cornwallis in battle in North Carolina at Guilford Court House and had been defeated, but with such loss to Cornwallis that Greene felt that victory was with him. Cornwallis had marched on to Virginia after the battle of Guilford Court House to join the northern British army and Greene wanted to follow him. But he at length decided to come back into South Caro- lina and sent word ahead to Sumter and Marion to gather all the men they could to march with him against the British post at Camden. 251. Fort Watson Falls. Greene returned and camped at Hobkirk's Hill near Camden. He ordered Marion and Colonel Lee to attack the posts below Camden. These officers decided to attack Fort Watson because this post had the stores and am- munition lost by Sumter which they needed so much. Their soldiers cut logs which they carried on their shoulders to a place near the fort. There they built a high log pen in the night. The riflemen got on top of this and at dawn the British found themselves covered by the American rifles. A shower of bullets forced them to surrender. This log pen was the idea of Colonel Hezekiah Maliam and was thereafter known as the "Maham Tower. ' ' Pushing the Fort Watson prisoners before him, Marion hurried to join Greene at Camden. 252. Greene Defeated at Hobkirk's Hill. The approach of Marion brought on the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill. Rawdon de- cided to attack Greene before Marion arrived. Greene 's advance guard received the attack with coolness and good order. Greene put two regiments of soldiers in front of his artillery and, as the British advanced, the two lines parted and the enemy was wel- comed with a storm of grape shot from Greene's cannon. They retired in confusion, and Greene, thinking the battle won, ad- vanced against the British. Rawdon then threw out his sup- porting columns. The Americans fell into confusion. Greene HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 127 tried to rally liis soldiers but failed and had to retreat. 253. British Leave Camden. Even though defeated at Hobkirk's Hill, Greene was successful in forcing Rawdon out of Camden for he cut off the supplies coming from Charles Town to Camden and Rawdon had to leave on that account. He burned the town before leaving and the Loyalists who had gathered there under his protection followed him to Charles Town. They built a miserable village of huts for themselves which they named Rawdontown. 254. The Capture of Motte's. In May, 1781, Sumter, Marion and Lee all assembled before the British post at Motte's. The Motte plantation was on the south side of the Con- garee River in what is now Calhoun County. The de- fenses of the British were built around the beautiful home of Mrs. Rebecca Motte, from which the British had driven her. The Partisans told JMrs. ]\Iotte that the house would have to be burned to force the British out. She consented at once and gave them some fire arrows which had been given her brother, the famous Miles Brewton, by a sea captain who had brought them from the East Indies. These arrows were shot from a musket into the roof of the house, but failed to set it on fire. At that, Nathan Savage, one of the soldiers of Marion's brigade, rolled up a ball of pitch and brimstone, lighted it and threw it on the roof, set- ting it on fire. As the British soldiers climbed on the roof to Mrs. Rebecca Motte Presents the Fire Arrows to the Tartisaxs. 128 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA put out the blaze, Marion's riflemen would pick them off one by one. Knowing that the large amount of powder stored in the house would blow them all up should the fire reach it, the British surrendered. As soon as they did, soldiers of both sides climbed to the roof and put the fire out. 255. Fall o£ Granby and Orangeburgh. During the same month, May, 1781, Sumter forced the British at Orangeburgh to surrender. About a hundred were taken prisoners and large stores of much needed food fell into Sumter's hands. He then hurried to Granby to besiege that post, but found that it had already surrendered to Colonel Lee. 256. The Fall of Augusta. At this time Pickens was busy in the Ninety Six section. Pickens' plan was to keep the sol- diers at the British post at Ninety Six from going to the aid of the post at Augusta which was to be attacked next. In May, General Pickens and Colonel Lee joined Colonel Clarke of Georgia to help take Augusta from the British. The British had two forts there, both on the Savannah River. The Patriots built a tower of logs like the one raised at Fort Watson to over- look both forts. Several fights took place and soon the British surrendered. 257. British Leave Ninety Six. Sumter tried to persuade General Greene to attack Rawdon when he was leaving Camden, but this Greene would not do. Instead he marched to Ninety Six to capture the British post there. There were about 600 Tories at Ninety Six under the command of Colonel Cruger. Greene began the siege in ]\Iay and kept it up a month without success. Then Sumter sent him word that Rawdon was coming from Charles Town to the aid of Ninety Six with three fresh regiments which had just landed in Charles Town. Upon hear- ing this, Greene decided to storm the post before Rawdon came. He did this but found that he was losing so many men that he called them off and retreated hastily. The next month the British left this post, and the Tories there made their way to the wretched settlement their brother Tories called Rawdontown, HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 129 It was learned later that the British were about to abandon Ninety Six when Greene attacked. So he would have done well to have taken Sumter's advice and attacked Rawdon instead of wasting his time on Ninety Six. 258. British Leave Georgetown. While Greene was busy at Ninety Six, Marion marched upon Georgetown. But the night before the British had left Georgetown and sailed for Charles Town. Marion marched in and destroyed their defenses. 259. British Hold on State Weakened. The spring and early summer of 1781 had brought success to the daring Parti- sans. They had captured, or forced the British to leave, the posts at Fort Watson, Camden, Motte's, Granby, Orangeburgh, Augusta, Ninety Six and Georgetown. Thanks to the fearless- ness of the Partisans, the British hold on South Carolina, which once seemed too strong to break, was growing weaker and weaker. CHAPTER XIX VICTORY FOR THE PARTISANS 260. The Raid of the Dog Days. In midsummer of 1781, Sumter and Marion with the two Hamptons, Horry, Maham, Harden and many other gallant Partisan officers raided the Low-Country with the idea of making one great effort to drive all the British into Charles Town. Colonel Wade Hamp- ton charged a British force within five miles of Charles Town and, appearing before the defenses of the city, caused great terror. Think- ing that the entire American army was on the way, alarm guns were fired and all the British in the city gathered under arms. Hampton captured fifty prisoners and fled before the British could catch him. He also burned four vessels laden with valuable stores for the British army. Lee captured a large quantity of provisions, and chased the British force from their post in Dorchester. Sumter attacked unsuccessfully the British at Bigin Church. The British defeated Sumter's advance guard, then burned the church 'and their stores and retreated toward Charles Town. Lee, Hampton, Marion, Maham and others pursued, coming up with the British at Quenby Bridge. The fight there lasted until dark when the Partisans withdrew fear- ing British reinforcements. This fight ended "the raid of the dog days, ' ' which had nearly succeeded in cooping the British in Charles Town. 261. Capture and Death of Hayne. In July, 1781, Colonel 130 Battle of Quenby Bridge. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 131 Isaac Hayne, who had before this time kept out of the fighting because of having given his word to the British, now broke his parole and joined Harden. One night he went with a party into the very lines of Charles Town to capture General Andrew Williamson who had also given his parole and was living under British protection in Charles Town. Hayne and his band seized Williamson while in bed and carried him off to their camp. Whereupon the British at once made a surprise attack on the camp and, capturing Williamson and Hayne, carried them back to Charles Town. Hayne was thrown into the common prison in the basement of the Exchange. He was one of many who had given parole and then fought against the British. Colonel Balfour, in command of Charles Town, decided to make an ex- ample of Hayne to stop others from following in his footsteps. After appearing before a court called to inquire into his case, Hayne was notified that he was to be hanged. The citizens of Charles Town asked mercy for him. The women begged in person for his life. But Balfour and Lord Rawdon would not listen. Hundreds were present at the execution. Hayne walked to the gallows in a firm, manly way saying as he went that he would show them "how an American should die." He parted with his children and a few friends at the gallows, and died a martyr to freedom. The entire State was shocked at the execu- tion. The Partisans swore vengeance and General Greene noti- fied Colonel Balfour that he would retaliate by hanging any British subjects who fell into his hands. 262. George Washington in Virginia. About the middle of August, 1781, General George Washington led his army, rein- forced by 3,200 French soldiers, into Virginia to attack Corn- wallis, wiio had marched there after the battle with Greene in North Carolina at Guilford Court House. Upon getting this news, General Greene made every possible effort to keep any British forces in South Carolina from reaching Cornwallis to help him. 263. Battle of Eutaw Springs. Greene's first move was to 132 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA attack the British under Colonel Stewart at Eutaw Springs in Orangeburg County. The battle took place in September, 1781, and was a complete surprise to the British. Stewart, fearing nothing, had sent out an unarmed party of 100 men to dig sweet potatoes. The potato-diggers were captured, and the British re- treated with Greene's army at their heels. But, when the Americans, hungry and half-clothed, came to the British tents and saw food, clothing and drink scattered about the camp, they fell into confusion, left their officers and wildly ran about gathering up what they wanted. They found quantities of whiskey and began to drink to excess. At this, the British, who had fled to the shelter of a brick house near the springs, fired from the windows of the house. In vain did Greene try to rally his men. They were entirely unmanageable. Seeing this, he collected his wounded and retreated. Next day Stewart hastily fell back, leaving his dead unburied and his wounded to the mercy of the Americans. Both sides claimed the victory. Stewart's hasty retreat showed that the power of the British in South Carolina was indeed weakening. 264. Surrender at Yorktown Aided by Partisans. About the end of October, 1781, the great news reached South Carolina that Cornwallis had surrendered to General George Washington at Yorktown in Virginia on October 17. This gave the South Carolinians fresh courage to drive the British down to the sea. At the beginning of the year 1781, the British had had almost the entire State in their hands and at the end of that year they were cooped up in Charles Town and kept in the country right around the city. The gallant fighting of the Partisans had de- layed Cornwallis so long in his march to the North and had so cut up his army that General Washington was able to meet and defeat him in Virginia. Thus the fighting of the Patriots in South Carolina aided George Washington to capture the British army in Virginia. 265. Tories at Work. The surrender of Cornwallis at York- town had really ended the Revolutionary War, but there was HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 133 still more blood to be shed in South Carolina. The Tories went on one last dreadful series of raids. "Bloody Bill" Cuningham and his band camped in the swamps of the Edisto River from where they spread in all directions, burning, destroying, murder- ing as they went. To add to this, the Cherokees arose and, fall- ing on Gowen's Fort in Greenville County, massacred the Patriot families gathered there for safety. Pickens went after the Cherokees. In what is now Oconee County, he burned thir- teen Indian villages and captured and killed many Indians. Marion was busy putting down the Tories in the Peedee section. In some sections, truces were made between the Tories and the Patriots for the purpose of raising crops which they all needed so badly. Near the present town of Salley the Tories were de- feated by Captain William Butler of Edgefield who also gallantly aided in ending the raids of "Bloody Bill" Cuningham. 266. Governor Rutledge Con- venes Legislature. Governor Rut- ledge now returned to South Caro- lina and called a meeting of the Gen- eral Assembly to be held at the little village of Jacksonborough about thirty-five miles from Charles Town. The members of the General Assembly were men who had won the liberty of the State. In it were Sumter, Marion, Pickens, the two Horrys, Harden and many of their brave sol- diers. John Laurens was present, also his father Henry Laurens, just released from the Tower of London. General William Moultrie, who had jjenrt lauu^s, been a prisoner in Charles Town since One of the most proniinent , T ^, . , T ^ -, citizens of Ilevolutionary its surrender, and Christopher Gads- times. 134 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA den, who had been imprisoned in St. Augustine, were also mem- bers. John Mathews, wlio had done good work for South Caro- lina in the Congress at Philadelphia, was elected governor to succeed Rutledge whose term was out. The office of governor was offered to that fine old Patriot, Christopher Gadsden, but he refused it on account of age and ill health. By act of the legislature the property of the Loyalists was confiscated as a means of getting money for the immediate use of the State. Among other acts was one making a large gift of money to Gen- eral Greene for his services. 267. British in Charles Town. The British, cooped in Charles Town, were beginning to need food. Ships had not been sent to carry them back to England, but South Carolina knew that if the British could be kept from getting food from the country they would be forced to leave. 268. Death of John Laurens. Many small fights took place to prevent the British from getting food. In one of these John Laurens was killed. This was a severe loss to the State, for Laurens was one of her greatest men. In his death South Carolina lost a gal- lant patriot and an able statesman. Laurens had been chosen by George Washington to arrange the surrender at Yorktown. He had served on Wash- ington's staff in the North. He had gone as special minister to France where he got a loan from the French king which enabled the Americans to keep up the fight. Lastly he had fought in the defense of his own State and at the moment of victory had lost his life. 269. British Leave South Carolina. Ships finally came to take the British away from Charles Town. The British com- mander made arrangements with Greene to do the city no injury Colonel John Lauukns, Who was killed in a skirm- ish with a British forag- ing party after the State had won its freedom. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 135 if Greene would agree not to attack as they left. ' ' It was a grand and pleasing sight," General Moultrie wrote afterward "to see the enemy's fleet, upwards of three hundred sail, lying at anchor from Fort Johnson to Five Fathom Hole, in a curve line, as the Patriots Enter Charles Town After British Leave. current runs ; and what made it more agreeable they were ready to depart. ' ' On Saturday, December 14, 1782, the British sailed away and Charles Town was free. The Patriots entered as they left. First came the army, then Governor Mathews with a large escort. The governor's council and long lines of officers followed on horseback. The smiling faces and joyful voices of the citizens who had been imprisoned there since the fall of the city greeted the deliverers as they marched in. The balconies and the win- dows were crowded with the aged men, the women and the children who, for nearly three years, had mourned the absence 136 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA of sons, brothers, friends. All their sufferings of the war were now forgotten in the triumph of victory bravely won. The War of the Revolution was over and South Carolina was a free State, thanks to the bravery of its own sons, the Partisans, who in the face of defeat, fought and won many battles for liberty. CHAPTER XX COUTH CAROLINA BECOMES A STATE IN THE UNITED STATES 270. South Carolina a Free State. South Carolina had won her freedom. "Left mainly to her own resources," says Bancroft, the great historian, "it was through the depths of wretchedness that her sons were to bring her back to her place in the republic, after suffering more and daring more and achieving more than the men of any other State." A treaty was signed at Paris whereby Great Britain acknowledged "the United States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia to be free, sovereign, and independent States." The boundaries were Florida on the south, Canada on the north, the Mississippi River on the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. South Carolina, instead of belonging to England, was now one of thirteen separate, independent States. 271. Patriots Lead in Peace. The first regular meeting of the General Assembly of South Carolina after the Revolution- ary War took place in January, 1783. It elected Benjamin Guerard governor of the State. Guerard was a Patriot who had been held by the British on a prison ship after they took Charles Town. Henry Laurens, John Rutledge, Ralph Izard, Jacob Read and Thomas Sumter were elected to represent South Carolina at the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. In the j^ears follow- ing the Revolution, we shall see that almost all the Patriot leaders held State offices or represented South Carolina in Con- gress. Fortunately for the State, these men proved as wise leaders in peace as they had been brave in war. Probably there has never been a more critical time in the life of South Carolina 137 138 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA than that through which the State went in what we might call its babyhood right after the Revolution when it was a separate, independent State. It had to disband its soldiers and to decide what to do with the Loyalists among its citizens. As a rule, the Loyalists were treated with great kindness, considering the trouble they had given the Patriots. Those Patriots who had been left in poverty by the war had to be helped. A law was passed allowing them to pay their debts on easy terms. The houses burned and plantations ruined by the British and Tories had to be rebuilt and repaired. The people, encouraged by their leaders, went to work w^ith a will. The Revolution had halted plans to build colleges in South Carolina. But just after the war ended, the leaders of the State, knowing the importance of education, provided for colleges at Charles Town, Winnsboro and Ninety Six. To care for the children left fatherless by the war, orphanages were opened at Charles Town, Ninety Six and Camden. Led by the Patriots who had done so much to win the war. South Carolina thus helped herself to get back into the paths of peace and progress. 272. Columbia Made State Capital. William Moultrie, the hero of Fort Moultrie and defender of Charles Town, became governor in 1785, after Guerard. Two years later Thomas Pinckney was elected and his cousin, Charles Pinckney, followed him in 1789. While Moultrie was governor the General As- sembly voted to make Columbia the State's capital instead of Charles Town, the name of which the Assembly changed to Charleston. Columbia was selected because it was in the center of the State, easy for the people of both the Low-Country and Up-Country to reach. After the General Assembly decided on this change, streets were laid out and a State house built. A few years later the State records were moved to Columbia and the General Assembly iColLeji X Mftkodist '•'t. O Acadi'iu^ Plan of Columbia showinj; also the old town of Granby. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 139 held its meetings at the new capital instead of at Charles- ton. 273. Disadvantages of the Free State, State pride might have kept South Carolina forever a free and sovereign State, but for certain serious drawbacks which began to be felt about 1787. The treaty of Paris had recognized the separate inde- pendence of the thirteen States. They each had to face the ques- tion whether they should remain separate or join their fortunes. The drawbacks to remaining separate were these : First — The Continental Congress owed a huge war debt which it had no way of paying, because the States were afraid to give it the power to tax them to raise money. Second — There were many quarrels between the States over the western lands into which settlers were moving. When sev- eral States claimed the same lands, there was no one to settle the quarrel. The Congress at Philadelphia had only the power to advise. The States were afraid that if they gave Congress real power it would become another tyrant like England. Third — European countries would not trade with the States, because they did not know whether they were dealing with one nation or thirteen. Fourth — Congress had no power or money to keep up an army or navy and therefore there was no force on land or sea to protect the country from foreign enemies. 274. Calling a Constitutional Convention. To the people of all the States, the Congress seemed almost a foreign govern- ment. They were afraid to give it the power to raise money by taxation, to settle quarrels between the States, to organize an army and build a navy and to deal with foreign countries. A closer union between the States might never have been formed, but for the clear necessity for it that the people finally began to see. The quarrels between the States grew worse and worse. The advice of Congress was disregarded by the States. There were riots among the soldiers in the North, because they had not been paid for fighting. Congress had no money. So it made 140 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA paper money which was so worthless that it took ten dollars of it to buy a pound of sugar. Along with all this trouble at home, barbarous North Africans began to prey upon American ships and Spain was making trouble on the Mississippi for the Ameri- cans who traded along that great river. In this desperate condition of affairs, Virginia called a convention of all the States to discuss matters. Only five States sent representatives so a second meeting was called for the spring of 1787 at Phila- delphia. 275. Forming the Constitution. To this convention South Carolina sent five delegates: John Rutledge, Henry Laurens, Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and Pierce Butler. The meeting was held in May in the same building where the Declaration of In- dependence had been signed. There was not a man present who had not dis- tinguished himself in some way in winning the liberty of the States. George Washington was chosen presi- dent and the convention set to work. After four months the convention settled upon a plan of government to be presented to the thirteen States for approval. This plan was called the Constitution. Several delegates had of- fered plans of government, but it was afterwards found that the plan of Charles Pinckney of South Carolina entered more largely into the Constitution than any other. 276. The Constitution. The Constitution provided for a chief executive who was to be known as the President of the United States, for a Congress of two bodies — a Senate and a House of Representatives — and for a Supreme Court. Each State was to elect two senators and the number of representatives Charles Tinckney, Who took a proniiiipnt part in writing the United States Constitution and served four times as Governor of South Caro- lina. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 141 each State should have in the House was to be based on the population of the State. The slave trade was to be abolished after 1808. The Congress was to have power to tax the people of the States and was to regulate trade. 277. South Carolina Agrees to Constitution. Opinion in South Carolina was divided over the Constitution. There was a strong state pride in South Carolina which was jealous of any outside control. In general, the men of the Up-Country were opposed to ratifying or agreeing to the Constitution for they feared a strong, central power. The Low-Country citizens were in favor of the Constitution. In the late spring of 1788, the party in favor of the Constitution won the fight and South Caro- lina ratified the Constitution which gave us the government of the United States of America in the same form it is today. South Carolina had, after twelve years of independence, entered of her own free will a union of her sister States. A State convention was called to form a new State Constitution which would fit the needs of the State as a member of the Union. Hereafter we shall find the history of South Carolina bound up in that of the United States. 278. At the First National Congress. George Washington was elected first President of the United States. Among those representatives who went to the first Congress of the United States were General Thomas Sumter and Pierce Butler of South Carolina. This was perhaps the most important Congress ever held in this country, as upon it largely depended the strength of the Union. One of the most important laws made by the first Congress was that putting a tax on foreign imports (goods brought in from other countries). Pierce Butler of South Caro- lina fought this law bitterly, because it meant that as South Carolina's chief industry was farming she would have to buy most of her goods, paying a higher price on account of the tax. The law favored New England in which manufacturing, and not farming, was the great industry. It is important to remember that in the very first Congress, South Carolina protested against 142 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA this tax, or tariff as it was called, for we shall find as we go on that this was the very thing which started the trouble between the North and the South in years to come. 279. President Washington's Visit. In May, 1791, Presi- dent Washington arrived in Charleston on a visit to the State. A twelve oared barge aboard which were the President's cousin, Colonel William Washington of Revolutionary fame, Edward Rutledge, General Moultrie and General Pinckney, met Wash- ington at Mount Pleasant and brought him to the city. Wash- ington was welcomed upon landing by Governor Charles Pinckney, Intendent VanderHorst, the wardens and citizens of Charleston. The streets were decorated with arches abloom with flowers and laurel. After a week of gay parties and balls in honor of "the Father of his Country," Washington continued his tour of the Southern States. He visited Camden and Colum- bia, the new capital, before leaving South Carolina. 280. Thomas Pinckney Minister to England. The year following this visit President Washington appointed Thomas Pinckney minister to England, This was a very hard post to fill as naturally England was still resentful over losing her American colonies. Pinckney filled the place with dignity and was afterward appointed special min- ister to Spain and then to France. Thus he held three of the highest positions within the power of the president to bestow. 281. John Rutledge Honored. John Rutledge, the noble statesman and Patriot, was made an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Then, after the resignation of Thomas riNCKNET, j^^^ j President Washington ap- Governor of South Caro- . *'/ , „ . . lina, Minister to England pointed him cllicf JUStlCC of this COUrt, and Special Minister to i • i ^ • t • i j^ • .^ i i Franco and 8pain. the highest judicial office in the land. CHAPTER XXI HOW THE STATE DEVELOPED AFTER THE REVOLUTION 282. Birth of "King Cotton." The cotton gin, invented in 1793, during General William Moultrie's second term as gov- ernor, profoundly changed conditions in South Carolina and other slates in the South. A little cotton had been grown in South Carolina for many years. The seed were taken out of the lint with the fingers, slow and tedious work. Cotton was planted only in small patches and not in great fields, though it is the most useful of all materials for making cloth. In some families, there was a rule that the children must take the seed from enough cotton to fill their shoes before they went to bed at night. The farmers began to plant big fields of cotton after they found that the gin would quickly pick the seed from the lint. 283. Legislature Acts. The leaders in South Carolina rea- lized how important was the discovery of a machine which would take the seed out of lint cotton. In 1801 the legislature agreed to pay fifty thousand dollars to Eli Whitney and his partner, Miller, for the right to have cotton gins, which Whitney is said to have invented in 1793, made and used in South Caro- lina. The legislature then laid a small tax on the users of gins to repay the State the large sum of money given to Whitney and Miller. 284. Growing of Cotton Increases. At the time of the in- vention of the gin, rice and indigo were the great crops out of which the planters in South Carolina made money. The grow- ing of cotton spread to every part of the State, after the gin was invented. Rice could be grown profitably only in the great fresh water marshes of the Low-Country. Indigo also grew best along the coast. Cotton would grow anywhere in South Carolina 143 144 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA on well drained land, except in the mountains in the north- western part of the State. As cotton sold for a good price, farmers all over the State planted their best lands in cotton. They worked the crops of cotton with slaves, just as they did their indigo and rice. As the years went by, slaves were in even greater demand and brought higher prices on account of the money they made for their masters in growing cotton. You have read that the settlers in the Up-Country usually raised cattle. As they got their lands cleared they planted crops, among them cotton. Some of the settlers in the Up-Country, too poor to do so at first, bought slaves when they made money. With these negroes they planted more land because farming, espe- cially the raising of cotton, was more profitable for them with slave labor than tending herds of cattle. 285. What the Invention of the Cotton Gin Did. As the years went by, cotton became the one great crop in South Caro- lina. It was found that rice could be grown more cheaply else- where. The chemists learned how to make indigo dye out of chemicals instead of out of the plant. The money from growing cotton and the fact that it would thrive in the Up-Country made the citizens of the Piedmont eager to own slaves. The price of slaves increased. Both the Up-Country and the Low- Country profited greatly from raising cotton. Farmers de- pended on cotton almost en- tirely, and have continued to do so until very recent times. With the money they got the cotton planters who owned slaves bought great tracts of land. This made South Carolina a State in which there were many large An Early Cotton Gin, farms and but few Small ones, HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 145 286. Making Cotton Cloth. The manufacturing of cloth from cotton in the State developed hand in hand with the in- crease in the amount of cotton raised in South Carolina. At first all the cloth was manufactured on the plantations by the negro slaves who had been taught to spin and weave or by the wives and daughters of the household. It is quite probable, though not certain, that the first cotton factory in the United States was in South Carolina, instead of in Massachusetts as is generally supposed. Nineteen years before a mill was built in Massachusetts we find in The SSouth Carolina Gazette a letter telling of making cotton cloth in St. David's parish in the Peedee section. There is no doubt that a good deal of cotton cloth was made in the State on various plantations before the Revolution. In 1777 Daniel Heyward, the father of Thomas Ileyward, Jr., whom we remember as a signer of the Declaration of Independence, wrote his son that if he could only get a cer- tain kind of machine "there is not the least doubt but that we could make 6,000 yards of good cloth in the year from the time we began." It is possible that in 1787 a regular cotton mill was in operation on James Island near Charleston. As we have said, the manufacturing of cotton goods did not amount to much until the Whitney cotton gin was invented in 1793. The industry took on new life with this invention. In 1808, the House of Representatives of the General Assembly said that all of its members must appear during the session dressed in homespun suits. The South Carolina Homespun Company of Charleston was started in 1808 and the cornerstone of its factory was laid the same year. A few years later citizens of Greenville district asked the legislature to lend them money to build a mill which would spin enough yarn to weave 250 yards of cloth a day. 287. First Cotton Mills In Up-Country. About 1816, New England settlers came to the Up-Country and started small mills which were the forerunners of the scores of mills in the same section today containing many thousand spindles. Among these pioneer cotton mamifacturers in the Piedmont were 146 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA William Bates, George and Leonard Hill, John Weaver, John Clark and several others. In 1816 or 1817 the Hill factory in Spartanburg County contained 700 spindles. The Hill factory was on Enoree River. Bates, Weaver and others built another mill near the Hill factory. These two mills were the first in the Up-Country. Several more were built in the next few years. The first mill in what is now Greenville County was built in 1833 by William Bates on Rocky Creek. It is still in operation. All the machinery for the cotton mills in the upper part of South Carolina had to be hauled in wagons from Charleston. This was a tremendous undertaking. Also as cotton mills were new and untried ventures, it required courage on the part of men to put their money into them. 288. Condition of the Slaves. As we shall hear much a little later on about the evils of slavery, it should be said now that the slave owners in South Carolina, as a rule, treated their negroes with the greatest kindness, fed them well and clothed them comfortably. A negro slave cost money and a slave owner would no more have thought of mistreating a slave and making him unfit to work than he would have thought of abusing a fine horse. On the plantations the negroes lived in little houses near the "big house" of their masters. When they were ill they were cared for. As they were not worked too hard, they led a care free life because their masters provided for all their needs. Besides the slaves who worked the crops in the fields, other slaves were trained as servants and used about the houses of their owners. There were some exceptions to the rule that slave owners were kind to their slaves and some instances of harsh- ness and too much whipping. Usually overseers, hired by the slave owners to watch the work of the negroes, were the ones at fault. In many instances, the slaves loved their masters and mistresses and were devoted to them even after all the negroes were freed. In South Carolina there were a few men wlio owned hundreds of slaves and a great many men who owned scores of them. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 147 289. Wealth of the Slave Owners. Slave holders in South Carolina, especially those in the Low-Country, were frequently very wealthy men. They had, of course, none of the conveni- ences which even the poorest people enjoy today, such as elec- tric lights, telephones and railroads. They had, however, many luxuries which very few people have today. In the first place they had numbers of slaves to wait on them as servants. In the second place, many of them spent a good deal of time in Europe and, in the third place, they led lives of leisure. The slave owners usually lived in great houses built of brick or black cypress and surrounded by lovely gardens filled with rare plants and flowers. Broad halls ran the length of the houses and large rooms with high ceilings opened into the halls. On the floors were thick, costly carpets and the windows were hung with silk and lace curtains, brought from England or France. Much of the furniture in these houses also came from abroad. It was made of rosewood, walnut or mahogany. There were all kinds of carved sofas, graceful chairs and curious tables, sometimes in- laid with mother of pearl, copper or light colored woods. The walls were hung with oil paintings and mirrors. The dining rooms were furnished very beautifully because it was the custom of the day to give elaborate dinners to large parties of guests. The sideboards were loaded with silver plate and sometimes with gold. Wonderful winding staircases led from the lower hall to the upper floors where the bedrooms were. These rooms were richly furnished, the big beds with their four posts being covered with silken hangings. Some of the houses contained' large ball rooms which were usually on the third floor. These great houses were common in Charleston and along the rivers in the Low-Country, the places in the State which had been settled first. There were very, very few of them in the Up- Country, though as cotton was grown there and the wealth of the Up-Country increased many slave owners in that part of the State began to live in luxury like their fellow slave owners in the Low-Country. 148 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 290. Growth of the Up-Country. As has been pointed out in a previous chapter, the rich and beautiful Up-Country was not settled until many years after the Low-Country. It was a long time before there was anything like the amount of wealth in the Up-Country that there was in the Low-Country. The first settlers had to rely on themselves and they developed a hardy, independent spirit. What they needed they made or raised at home, buying only a few things such as gunpowder. They had few of the luxuries enjoyed by the rich people of the Low-Country. Their clothes were woven at home and often the furniture in their houses was hewn by hand from the trees in the forests. Their houses were built of logs, the cracks be- tween the logs being filled with clay. Their dishes were of pewter or wood and they sat on benches instead of chairs. In time they prospered just as the people of the Low-Country had after undergoing in years past the hardships all pioneers must endure. 291. Building Roads. The first settlements in the Low-; Country, as has been said, were along the rivers which were^, deep enough for boats to sail on. As the number of people in the State grew and as the Up-Country, with its swift, shallow rivers developed, the need for roads began to be felt keenly. The Revolutionary War did a great deal to show the citizens of the State that rivers could no longer be used as the only roads. It is true that a few rough wagon roads had been opened up before the Revolution. In fact, laws were passed as early as 1682 requiring all citizens, no matter how rich, to work the roads and keep them fit to travel. Despite this, what few short roads there were, were very rough and hard to travel. During the Revolution, citizens from the Peedee section traveled across country to fight in the Piedmont and men of the Piedmont went in the same way to fight in the Peedee. These hasty journey- ings, usually on horseback, back and forth across the State, showed that roads were absolutely necessary. After the Revolu- tion the people of South Carolina began work to improve their HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 149 highways. Old roads were put in repair, new ones laid out, bridges built and ferries improved, 292. Santee Canal. Another plan to make trading and travel more rapid and convenient in South Carolina was the building of the Santee Canal. This was started during the first term of Gover- nor William Moultrie. The building of the canal, which was twenty-two miles long and connected the Santee River with the Cooper River, was con- tinued from 1786 to 1800. In 1800 the canal was opened. For many years, boats loaded with goods from the Up- Country passed through the canal down the Cooper River to Charleston. It is interesting to note that John and Ed- ward Rutledge, General Thomas Sumter and General Francis Marion were among the men who were responsible for building the Santee Canal. 293. Population of State in 1800, showed that South Carolina contained 196,255 white people and 144,336 negroes, nearly all of the latter being slaves. The State had steadily increased in population as well as made progress in other directions during the administrations of Arnoldus VanderHorst, who succeeded General Moultrie as governor in 1794 ; under Charles Pinckney, who was governor for the third time in 1796 ; and under Edward Rutledge, who was elected governor in 1798, Rutledge died while governor and John Dray- ton filled his unexpired term. Then, in 1800, John Drayton was elected governor for a full term of two years. 294. South Carolina College Founded, While Drayton was governor, the legislature voted to establish the South Carolina College at Columbia, the new capital of the State. The wise leaders of that day knew that the education of its young people Edwaud Rutledge, Signer of the Declaration of Independence and Governor of Soutli Caro- lina. The census of 1800 150 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA at home was the best thing for the State. They thought also that a college in the center of the State where young men from all parts of South Carolina could easily go would increase "the good order and the harmony of the whole community." So in 1801 the General Assembly voted fifty thousand dollars to erect a building for South Carolina College and six thousand dollars to pay its professors. 295. Vaccination Against Smallpox. Dr. David Ramsay, the great physician, introduced vaccination against smallpox into South Carolina. This happened while James B. Richard- son was governor, from 1802 to 1804. Smallpox had been for centuries a dreaded disease, sweeping whole cities and countries in great plagues. Vaccination prevented people from taking the disease or, if they took it, it was very mild. Llany people in South Carolina opposed vaccination at first, but before very long nearly all of them knew its power to prevent the terrible disease. Dr. Ramsay did a great service to the State in intro- ducing vaccination. 296. The State Prospers. Paul Hamilton succeeded Rich- ardson as governor in 1804. When Hamilton became governor the State was so prosperous that it had money loaned out to the amount of $734,735. Rapidly the State was growing rich along with its people. 297. The Right to Vote. In 1806 Charles Pinckney was chosen governor of South Carolina for the fourth time. During this term of Pinckney 's suffrage was extended to all white men in the State, Before this time only those white men who owned a certain amount of property were allowed to vote in the elec- tions, but now all white men could vote, no matter how poor they might be in worldly goods. 298. Free School System. We have read that a hundred years before this time there were free schools in South Carolina. But therc^ was no regular system of free schools until 1811 when Henry ]\Iiddleton was governor. Middleton had succeeded John Drayton, who had been re-elected governor for a second time in HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 151 1808. The system of free schools established during Governor Middleton's term was intended only for those children of the State whose parents were too poor to send them to the private pay schools or to hire tutors to teach them. Our ancestors thought that it was the duty of every man who had money enough to do so to educate his children at his own expense. Now we feel that it is the first duty of the State to offer free to every child an education in a public school, and all the children of the State, rich and poor alike, enjoy the benefits of our great system of public schools which had its real beginning in 1811. 299. The Episcopal Church. From the time the first Eng- lish colony came in 1670 until 1778, when South Carolina adopted its second Constitu- tion, the Episcopal church was supported out of the taxes paid by all the people. Its rectors were paid by the State and its churches built by the State. This was unfair to the people of South Caro- lina who were not connected with the Episcopal Church. On account of being sup- ported at public expense, the Episcopal church got the best start in South Carolina. Its ministers came from England. During the Revolutionary War, several Episcopal church build- ings were destroyed. At the end of the war, with no money from the State, the Episcopal church found it could not rebuild those churches ruined by the British. Ministers from England stopped coming and there were not enough in South Carolina to fill Episcopal pulpits. The Episcopal church has only begun in recent years in South Carolina to recover from the blow dealt by the Revolution and the withdrawal of the State's financial support in 1778. An Episcopal Church, In the Low-Country 152 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA A Presbyterian Church, In the Up-Country. 300. The Presbyterian Church. Although the Episcopal church was supported by the public, there were more Presby- terians than Episcopalians in South Carolina during the years just before and just after the Revolution. Presbyterians were t"he first to push into the Up-Country and build churches there. After the Revolution the number of Presbyterians decreased. This church would have none except highly educated men for its ministers. Not enough of them were to be found and some Presbyterians, lacking pastors, turned to other churches. The colleges eager- ly sought Presbyterian min- isters as professors, because they were educated and able to teach the youth of the land many branches of learning. 301. The Baptist Church. Though there were Baptists in South Carolina as early as 1683, there were very few of them, and they could not agree among themselves. In 1751 the Charles Town Baptist Association was formed by four churches and four years later the Baptists had a church in the Up-Country. This denomination made no great gains in numbers until after the Revolution. Just before 1800, there was a great revival and the Baptists added tremendously to the membership of their church. 302. The Methodist Church. The first Methodist church in South Carolina was organized in Charleston in 1785. Like the Baptists, the Methodists supplied their own ministers, not de- pending on England for them as the Episcopal church did in the early times and not requiring highly educated men as the Presbyterians did. Methodist preachers went into districts in the State where there were no members of their denomination and secured many converts. The church grew rapidly. CHAPTER XXII THE WAR OF 1812 AND SOUTH CAROLINA STATESMEN 303. More Trouble With England. Stung by her defeat in the Revolutionary War, England took every opportunity to act spitefully toward the United States. She showed a lack of respect to the ambassadors the United States sent to the English court. Worse still, England would stop American vessels on the seas and search for English sailors on them. A second war seemed so certain that the Congress increased the size of the army and navy. However, England made a treaty with the United States, agreeing to cease her high-handed acts. 304. Disagreement With France. At the same time, the United States and France had a disagreement. The French had overthrown their king. The other kings in Europe, fearing the spread of democracy, grew alarmed and made war on France to help restore the monarchy. The French naturally expected that the United States would help them as they had aided us in the Revolution. The United States was too weak to help any other nation and refused aid to the French. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, sent as minister to France, was rejected by the French, be- cause the United States would not help them. Upon this, the United States sent three envoys to France, Pinckney being one of the three. The French insulted these envoys by telling them that in order to be received they must bribe the government officers with a huge sum of 153 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, South Carolina Soldier, Pa- ti'iot and Statesman. 154 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA money. To this proposal, Pinckney replied: "No! No! Not a sixpence." Matters nearly came to the point of war between the United States and France, but France smoothed things over. She had her hands full with England and did not want war with the United States. 305. War With England Declared, Despite the treaty, England kept on searching United States ships and seizing sailors on them. When Congress met in 1811, the great question before it was how to settle the trouble with England. John C. Calhoun, Langdon Cheves, David Rogerson Williams and William Lowndes were among the members South Carolina sent to the Congress of 1812. They were hot with indignation against England and thought war the only way out of the trouble. John C. Calhoun wrote the bill declaring war. 306. Preparations for War. South Carolina furnished her full share of men for the national army. Many of these soldiers were sons and grandsons of Revolutionary heroes and some of them were Revolutionary heroes themselves. They were present wherever the enemy threatened — in Canada, in Louisiana, in Florida and elsewhere. Thomas Pinckney, former governor of South Carolina, was made major general of the Southern de- partment. Wade Hampton, the Revolutionary Partisan, was appointed brigadier general. Under the leadership of Governor Joseph Alston of Georgetown, South Carolina prepared for in- vasion. Those places on the coast where the enemy might land were made ready for defense and manned with troops. 307. Capture of the Dominica. As the greater part of the war was carried on at the western border of the United States and on the seas, it affected South Carolina but little except by stopping her foreign trade. Charleston sent out a number of private armed vessels which did great harm to England's com- merce. There were several lively fights off the Carolina coast. One of the most interesting of these was the capture of the British ship Dominica in August, 1813, by the Decatur, a private armed vessel of Charleston, commanded by Captain Diron. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 155 Captain Diron 's crew boarded the Dominica and, guns becoming useless at such close range, the men fought with cutlasses. The captain and chief officers of the Dominica were killed, the decks were covered with dead and wounded and the British colors finally torn down. 308. British Land On Carolina Coast. The British landed a few times on the Carolina coast, once on Dewees's Island just north of Charleston. They burned some small vessels lying there and plundered several of the seashore plantations. They were also on Capers 's and other islands near Charleston and carried off cattle and food. They landed in force on Hilton Head near Beaufort and plundered the countryside there. These places were all unprotected. 309. War of 1812 Ends. In 1814 the War of 1812 came to a close in victory for the Americans. The chief effect of the con- flict on South Carolina was that the discussions in Congress over declaring war and how to gain the victory brought to the front among American statesmen three great South Carolinians — Calhoun, William Lowndes and Cheves. 310. John Caldwell Calhoun. The great South Carolina statesman, John Caldwell Calhoun, came into prominence during the session of Congress which declared war on England in 1812. Calhoun was born in 1782 in Abbeville County. We have read about the massacre of some of his ancestors at Long Canes by the Cherokee Indians. While a boy, Calhoun studied at "Willington," a famous school taught by Dr. Moses Waddell, a Presbyterian minister. The young Calhoun went to Yale College and was graduated with distinction. He studied law in Connecticut and in Charleston, returning to Abbeville in 1807 to practice when he was twenty-five years old. Twice he was elected to the State legislature and then in 1811, as we have said, he was sent to Congress. The Congress quickly realized his great ability. He was made a member of an important com- mittee and soon became its chairman. During his early years in Congress, Calhoun worked for the good of the whole nation. He 156 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA wanted to see the States bound together by roads and canals. After three terms in Congress, he was made Secretary of War. In this office, he re-organized the United States Military Academy at West Point and started it on the way to become the greatest military school in the world. He was elected vice-president of the United States and served eight years. We shall tell a little later of his long fight for the rights of South Carolina to which he gave all his great powers of mind and depth of soul. Calhoun was tall and rather slender. His great mass of hair was black and his eyes blue. His manners were charming, and he drew men to him by his courtesy and kindness which won their hearts. The citizens of his native State loved and respected him. No statesman has ever excelled Calhoun in influence and broad leadership in South Carolina. 311. William Lowndes. William Lowndes was sent to Con- gress in 1811, with his friend Calhoun. Lowndes was born in Colleton district in 1782, the year of Calhoun's birth. William Lowndes was the son of Rawlins Lowndes, the second president of the State of South Carolina. William went to England to school when he was seven years old. His health failed while in England, and he was brought back to South Carolina. He studied law, like Calhoun, but also planted rice. When he went to Con- gress, Lowndes worked for the building of a larger navy and to strengthen the army. He was offered high offices, but refused them, believing that he could be of more use to the country as a mem- ber of Congress. South Carolina named both Calhoun and Lowndes as suitable men for president of the United States. Lowndes' brilliant life ended in 1822. William Lowndes, He died while on a voyage to Europe Who was pducatpd in and was buried at sea. Lowndes was Enffland and served the State well in Congress. Very tall and thiu, liis body showing his HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 157 feeble health. He had a wonderful mind and when he spoke in Congress he got most careful attention. Clay, the great Ken- tuckian, said Lowndes was the brightest man he ever met. Though he had resigned from Congress before leaving for Europe, the lawmakers wore mourning for the lamented Lowndes. 312. Langdon Cheves. A third great South Carolinian in the Congress of 1811 was Langdon Cheves. He was the son of a Scotch trader and was born in Abbeville County in 1776. Cheves' father was not a wealthy man. Lang- don Cheves had a much harder time in his youth than either Calhoun or Lowndes. Cheves must be given credit and honor for making himself one of the great men of South Carolina. He clerked in a store in Charleston when he was a boy to make money to help his family. He began to read law when he was eighteen years old. Three years later he began to practice law and in ten years he made him- self by hard work the leading lawyer in Charleston. He was sent to Congress in 1811 with Lowndes and Calhoun. In three years he was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, the highest position in Congress. After two years as a judge in South Carolina, Cheves was elected in 1819 president of the Bank of the United States in Philadelphia. This bank had been so poorly managed that it was about to go to ruin. Cheves saved it and made it a success, rendering a great service to his country. Cheves was tall and strong. His face was striking and firm. He was an orator of ability. He made himself what he was without the backing of wealth or influential family. 313. State Builds Roads and Canals. Passing unhurt, ex- cept for the loss of a little trade, through the War of 1812, South Langdon Cheves, Speaker of the House of Representatives ami Pres- ident of tlie Bank of the United States. 158 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Boat Similar to Those Used on South Carolina Rivers. Carolina undertook to make the State a better one in which to live. During the terms of David Roger- son Williams, Andrew Pickens, John Geddes and Thomas Bennett who served in the order named as governors of South Carolina, the legislature voted great sums of money which were spent on roads and canals in the effort to make it easier to move the cotton crops to market. We have read of the building of the Santee Canal to join the Santee and Cooper rivers. Other canals were cut around the rocky rapids in the Congaree, Broad, Saluda and Wateree rivers. These canals carried the narrow, shallow boats loaded with cotton safely around the rapids. For riding over some of the roads built by the State, the people had to pay a small sum of money. A charge was also made for taking boats through the canals. At one time it was possible to load a shallow boat with cotton within twenty-five miles of the Blue Ridge Mountains and send it down the streams and througli the canals to market in Charleston with- out unloading it. The increased size of the cotton crop was the chief reason for improving roads and waterways. Rice was grown in the Low-Country along rivers which were usually deep enough for large boats. Indigo, too, was a Low-Country crop, easily sent to market by water. But the bulk of the cotton crop, planted all over the State after the Whitney gin was invented, had to be carried to the sea for shipment abroad as so little of it was made into cloth in South Carolina. Bales of cotton in that day weighed about 300 pounds. The easiest way to get them to Charleston, the great port and cotton market, was to haul the bales over the roads to the nearest large stream, load them on a flat boat and send the boat through the canals and down the rivers. This accounts for the legislature's willingness to vote money in large sums for roads and canals. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 159 314. Visit of Lafayette. The Marquis de Lafayette, the gallant Frenchman who helped the United States win the Revolutionary War, arrived in South Carolina in 1825 on his tour of the United States. Lafayette had landed at North Island in Georgetown County, nearly fifty years before when he arrived to offer his sword in the cause of freedom. So he was welcomed very warmly to South Carolina when he came on his visit. He stopped at Cheraw, Camden, Colum- bia and Charleston and was received with balls, celebrations and military parades. While in Camden, Lafayette laid the corner- stone of the monument to the brave Baron De Kalb, who died for freedom in the Battle of Camden. People from all parts of the State flocked to see Lafayette and to do him honor. Marquis db Lafayette. CHAPTER XXIII STATES' RIGHTS MOVEMENT 315. National Trouble Threatened. John Lyde Wilson, a leading lawyer of Georgetown; Richard Irvine Manning, a planter of Sumter and the son of a brave Revolutionary cap- tain ; John Taylor, a planter of Richland ; and Stephen D. Miller of Sumter were the next four governors of South Carolina. During their terms, interest in the State's affairs was clouded by interest in national affairs. In 1828, during Governor Miller's term, the Congress passed a bill placing a high tax, called a tariff, on goods brought to the United States from foreign coun- tries. This meant that South Carolina and other Southern States, raising rice, cotton and indigo and buying great quanti- ties of goods abroad, would have to pay more for them. It also meant that the Northern States, which manufactured goods, were protected against foreign manufacturers by the tax and could sell at a higher price. Twice the legislature of South Carolina passed resolutions against the high tariff, declaring it unjust to the State and the South. Thus, the North caused national trouble by favoring its citizens at the expense of the South. 316. Difficulties of Union. It was only to be expected that troubles would arise among the various States. The country was very large. A trip from New York to Charleston by carriage or stage coach over rough roads and through almost unbroken forests was a dangerous journey of weeks. The same trip by water in a sailing vessel was also slow. News of the acts of Congress could not reach the States until long after they had been passed and become Stage Coach. laws. Being in such poor touch with m HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 161 one another, it is not surprising that the States were not bound very closely together. The chief interest of each State naturally lay in the management of its own affairs. 317, Tariff Causes Trouble. The first trouble grew out of the tariff question. The very first Congress had laid a tariff or tax on foreign goods for the purpose of raising money. This tariff was very favorable to the New England States as it pro- tected their manufacturers. But it was very hard on South Carolina as this State made nearly all its money by farming and was therefore dependent upon Europe for manufactured goods which the tariff raised in price. As the Northern mem- bers of Congress increased the tariff, the Southern members, led by Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina in the Senate and George McDuffie in the House, protested and fought for the rights of the South in almost every session of Congress. 318. The Question of Slavery. A more serious problem than that of the high tariff was developing all the time. This was the question of slavery which was to draw the great line of difference between the North and the South. Up until about 1800 slaves were owned in all of the thirteen States. But on account of the cold climate of the Northern States the negroes did not thrive and slavery was practically abolished in the North. From earliest days New Englanders made fortunes from buying African prisoners, bringing them over in ships and sell- ing them in the Southern Colonies. In the South the climate suited the negroes and because this section was altogether agri- cultural the slaves were much needed. They cultivated the rice and indigo fields and, after the cotton gin was invented and great fields of cotton were planted, the South felt that it could not do without the negro slaves. It must be understood that it was the custom of the day to hold slaves. Slavery was intro- duced into every English settlement in America. English mer- chants had sent thousands of slaves into Carolina so that the Province could raise more rice and indigo to sell to them. Even when England did away with slavery at home, she would not 162 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA consent to abolishing the slave trade in her colonies. There is no doubt that holding human beings in slavery was a great wrong even though it civilized the savage negroes who were brought over from Africa; but it was nevertheless the custom of man from the earliest days to hold slaves. South Carolina College About the Year 1850. 319. Admission of New States. The treaty with England after the Revolutionary War had said that all the land as far west as the Mississippi River belonged to the United States. Into this western territory settlers from the thirteen original States had poured. Whenever any one section had enough set- tlers it applied to Congress to be admitted into the Union as a new State. When people in the slave-holding States went into this new territory and settled there, they carried their slaves with them. It was only natural that when they applied to enter the Union as a new State they expected to hold their slaves. The people who went from the Northern States into the new territory did not have slaves and when they asked to enter the Union they wanted to do so as a "free" State, that is to say a State in which people were not allowed to own slaves. We can readily see how disputes would come up on the question of slavery when a new State asked to be taken into the Union. 320. Slavery in the Louisiana Purchase. It grew to be the HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 163 case that owning slaves and not owning them marked such a real difference between the sections that the admission of a new State was dependent on a settlement of this question. Up to this time the balance of power between the North and the South had been preserved since of the twenty-two States now composing the Union, eleven had free labor and eleven permitted slavery. The vast Louisiana Purchase, from which the territory of Missouri had been carved, was now being opened to colonization. Northerners did not want the Louisiana Purchase opened to slavery, for the formation of new slave-holding States would give the South control of the Senate. On the other hand, Southerners emigrating to this new territory claimed the privi- lege of carrying their slaves with them and sought to come into the Union as slave States. Since the interests of the two sections were directly opposite each wished to have control of the gov- ernment. The North, already able to outvote the South in the House of Representatives because of her greater popvilation, and having an even balance of power in the Senate, now declared that Congress had power to restrict slavery in the public domain. This the South emphatically denied saying that no such power had been given the national government by the Constitution; that the government in taking such power was overstepping the authority granted it by the States. 321. The Missouri Compromise. Slaves were numerous in Missouri and when the territory applied for admission into the Union in 1819 its citizens wished it to come as a slave-holding State. To this the North was bitterly opposed and ill-feeling between the two sections was increased. While excitement was at its height, Maine knocked at the door for admission. As Maine would be a free-labor State, the South would not agree to its admission unless Missouri were allowed to come in as a slave State and thus preserve the balance of power. What is known as the "Missouri Compromise" was now proposed by Senator Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois and agreed to. Under the terms of the compromise, Missouri came in as a State with 164 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA slaves, but slavery was prohibited elsewhere in the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes, which is the southern boundary of Missouri. The "Missouri Compromise," so famous in the history of our country, stood for many years, though in reality it gave satisfaction to neither side. 322. Tariff Goes Higher. Meanwhile the tariff was raised higher and higher. The South felt that she was being badly treated. It seemed that the North because of its greater white population and more members in Congress was trying to take all the powers of government. The tariff of 1828 was called the "Tariff of Abominations," and the legislature of South Carolina, as we have said, protested against its injustice. The breach between the two sections was rapidly widening. 323. Hayne-Webster Debate. At this crisis one of the greatest debates in American history took place on the floor of the Senate. This was between Robert Y. Hayne of South Caro- lina and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. The debate con- cerned the rights of the states and the rights of the Union. Hayne declared that the Constitution was an agreement between the states as equals. He argued that in the Constitution the states had given some clearly stated rights to the central govern- ment and had kept all other rights for themselves. He said that when the central government overstepped these clearly stated rights then the states could refuse obedience. Webster claimed that the Constitution was not an agree- ment between the states but was the form of government for the American people as a whole and that no one state had the right to veto any act of the central govern- ment. 324. South Carolina in a Turmoil. Robert t. Hatnb, The people of South Carolina were divided Famous orator who over the question of what a state could do fought for States Rights in the Senate, to rcsist a law passcd by Congress. All HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 165 agreed to the injustice of the high tariff laws, but one party, called the Union party, held that South Caro- lina having entered the Union of her own free will could withdraw from, the Union whenever she chose, but that as long as she was a member of the Union she could not veto, or "nullify," an act of the central gov- ernment. The other party was called the Nullification party and was led by John C. Calhoun, ably supported by Robert Y, Hayne, George Mc- Dufiie and James Hamilton, Jr. In 1830 the Union party elected the in- tendant of Charleston, while the "Nullifiers" elected the governor, James Hamilton, Jr. These parties were often on the verge of bloodshed in Charleston. Feeling in the state was at fever heat. 325. Ordinance of Nullification. The crisis came in 1832 when Congress again increased the tariff. John C. Calhoun had succeeded Hayne in the Senate and Hayne had returned to South Carolina and had been elected governor in 1832 by the ''Nullifiers." The Nullification party in South Carolina was estimated at 20,000 and the Union party at 15,000. The "Nullifiers" elected their men to the legislature. A con- vention with Governor Hayne as chairman met at Columbia, at the suggestion of Calhoun, and declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void. The convention declared that if the United States tried to use force to make the State pay the tariff South Carolina would secede from the Union and set up a government of its own. This was the famous Ordinance of Nullification. The victorious ' ' Nullifiers ' ' celebrated their victory with a torch- JoHN C. Calhoun, The Great South Carolina Statesman. 166 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA light procession in Charleston. They made a demonstration against the City Gazette, the Union newspaper, and in vari- ous ways expressed their contempt for the defeated Union party. 326. Steps of the National Government. In reply to the Ordinance of Nullification Andrew Jackson, the President of the United States at the time, issued a proclamation denouncing the ordinance and begging the people of his native state (Jack- son was born in the Waxhaw section in South Carolina) not to defy the national government and break its laws. Governor Hayne replied, asserting the right of the state to refuse to obey unjust laws of Congress. President Jackson then sent armed vessels to Charleston to enforce the tariff laws. Meanwhile soldiers were being trained in South Carolina, large supplies of ammunition were bought, and a call was made for volunteers. 327. Clay's Compromise. War between South Carolina and the United States was prevented by a compromise bill offered in Congress by Henry Clay of Kentucky. Clay's compromise bill provided that the tariff should be reduced gradually so that by the end of ten years it would furnish money only for the expenses of the government. This bill, after being passed by Congress, removed the cause of the trouble, and South Carolina repealed the Ordinance of Nullification. 328. The Right to Nullify Laws and to Secede. It has been the custom of prejudiced or poorly informed historians to point to South Carolina as the ringleader both in nullifying laws of Congress and in threatening to leave the Union. As a matter of fact, thirteen other states — seven in the North and six in the South — had at one time or another declared that they had a right to nullify laws of Congress which hurt their interests. As for seceding from the Union, the New England states threatened to do it long before South Carolina ; as we shall soon see, actually did do it. New England threatened to leave the Union and said it had a right to do so when the War of 1812 was declared and again when tlie United States went to war with Mexico. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 167 329. Anti-Slavery Cry in the North. A far greater cause for worry than the tariff lay in the growing opposition in the North to slavery in the South. By the Missouri Compromise it was settled that none of the northern states of the new terri- tory in the West should be slave-holding. It was thought that this would end the trouble. But it did not. The twenty years following the Missouri Compromise marked the forming of many anti-slavery societies in the North. Traveling preachers made the rounds of the country denouncing slavery. By 1834 sharp debates were heard in Congress on the subject. By 1835 there were 350 societies in the North which made it their business to send into the South violent anti-slavery literature intended to arouse a wish for freedom among the slaves themselves. In 1834 a mob broke in the post-office in Charleston and destroyed a quantity of these anti-slavery pamphlets. Lluch bitterness of feeling was arising out of the question of slavery. The Aboli- tionists, so called because they wanted to abolish slavery, were frequently led by meddlesome busybodies. The Abolitionists offered no remedy for the evils which would befall the South when the negroes were freed. 330. Bitterness Over Nullification Ended. George Me- Duffie, Pierce M. Butler, Patrick Noble, B. K. Henagan and John Peter Richard- son had in the order named held the office of governor after Hayne. It was worthy of note that the bitterness be- tween the Union men and "Nullifiers" in South Carolina had entirely ended in 1840, for Richardson had been one of the leaders of the Union party against the "Nullifiers." This old bitterness had been forgotten in the more serious trouble over slavery. ^^^^^^ mcduf.ie, 331. How the South Felt About Noted orator who served Slavery. South Carolina had regretted Governor'' '"''' ^' 168 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA from the beginning the existence of slavery and even in the days of the Proprietors had made efforts to check it, Henry and John Laurens had been strongly in favor of liberty for the negroes. The South as a whole was beginning to feel that slavery was an evil when the invention of the cotton gin made slave labor so profitable in the cotton fields that although the bringing in of slaves was stopped there was no more talk of freeing those already here. As the fight against slavery grew into national importance, the Southern states began to resent what they con- sidered the meddlesome interference of the North. They had not resented the open fight over the admission of ' ' slave ' ' and ' ' free ' ' states of the western territory into the Union. But the opinion was strong in the South that each state had absolute control over its own affairs, except for those clearly stated powers they had surrendered to the national government when they ratified the Constitution. This was their understanding when they entered the Union. 332. Abolitionists Hamper Freeing Slaves. The labor of slaves was of great importance to the South in growing cotton, but the freeing of slaves was not uncommon in the South. Societies organized in that section to promote it were active. However, the freed negroes had already given trouble and the Southern people thought it unwise to increase their numbers while the Abolitionists were exciting them. Furthermore, the propaganda of the Abolitionists, carried on through the medium of their "preachers" and their published tracts with which they deluged the South, was beginning to have its effect. In Vir- ginia, the slaves had recently risen in insurrection under the leadership of a negro named Nat Turner, and murdered more than sixty white persons. Slave owners, realizing the lengths to which the ignorant and easily misguided negroes might be led by the agitation of the Abolitionists, now claimed the pro- tection guaranteed them by the Constitution and demanded the suppression of the anti-slavery agitators and their publications. These meddlesome activities of the Abolitionists aroused keen HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 169 resentment in the South, and made a peaceable solution of the slavery question or a gradual emancipation of the negroes im- possible. 333. Calhoun Leads Fight for States' Rights. As John C. Calhoun had been South Carolina's leader in Nullification troubles, he now led the fight for states' rights on the slavery question. This formed the subject of conversation at all cross roads, in every little village and in every courthouse in the state. In the cities and larger towns one could have heard public speeches almost daily in the town halls where the people eagerly gathered. In 1842 Governor Richardson was succeeded by James H. Hammond, who had been a ''Nullifier" and was a great believer in states' rights. During his term the Citadel in Charleston and the Arsenal in Columbia were changed into military schools as Governor Richardson had recommended. Engine and Cars on the Railroad Between Charleston and Hamburg. 334. First Railway in the United States. During all the bitterness over how best to nullify the tariff laws and over the question of doing away with slavery. South Carolinians went right on developing their state. While the excitement about nullifying the tariff laws was at its height, the South Carolina Canal & Railroad Company was at work building a steam rail- road from Charleston to Hamburg, a town on the Savannah River opposite Augusta, Georgia. The money for building the railway was raised almost entirely among the men of Charleston, who believed that their city's trade would increase greatly from 170 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA the railroad. The railway was finished in 1833. It was 136 miles long and was the first steam railroad to be operated suc- cessfully in the United States. Its tracks were wooden timbers to which strips of iron were nailed. It was the longest railway in the world. Some men did not want tracks laid on their plantations, fearing that the trains would kill their little negro slaves and cattle. Some villages would not let the railroad pass through them on account of the smoke and noise from the engines. Other railway lines were built in the next few years. William Aiken, Elias Horry and Robert Y. Hayne, the states- men, were three of the leaders in the new enterprise of railway building. 335- What the Railways Did. In the course of time, steam railways, as they hauled freight and passengers quicker and cheaper, succeeded the rivers and canals as the chief carriers of the crops to market. Charleston and its citizens took the lead in providing money for new railways because they wanted the city to hold its place as one of the greatest on the Atlantic coast of the United States. The Santee canal, a great and serviceable trade route for Charleston, was finally put out of business by steam railroads. In the early days, it was necessary for a city to be on the sea or on a river or a canal to enjoy a great trade. Now it became necessary for a city to be on a railway to prosper. 336. William Gregg, Cotton Manufacturer. We have told how the invention of the Whitney cotton gin in 1793 made cotton the chief crop in South Carolina, caused farmers in the Up-Country to ow^n slaves and started the manufactviring of cotton yarn and cotton cloth on a larger scale. The manufac- turing of cotton cloth in South Carolina did not amount to much until 1847 when the Graniteville Mill in the Horse Creek Valley in Aiken County put its first cloth on the market. The president of this company was William Gregg, a rich merchant of Charles- ton. He saw the future of cotton manufacturing with great clearness and allowed nothing to stop him in his task of organ- izing cotton mills. William Gregg was the first great cotton HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 171 manufacturer in South Carolina. The soundness of his ideas on manufacturing cotton is recognized to this day. Gregg wanted to give work to the people in South Carolina who owned no slaves. These people had a very hard time trying to farm as cheaply as men could who owned slaves to whom they paid no wages. Gregg said that the cotton mills would give employment to thousands of people. So it proved in after years. 337. Trouble With Mexico. In 1844 William Aiken was elected gover- nor and was followed in 1846 by David Johnson. During their terms, the bitter- ness of the slavery argument was some- what lost in the growing trouble be- tween the United States and Mexico. In 1827 Mexico had freed its slaves. Its northern province, Texas, was peopled largely by settlers from the United States. Many of these were slaveholders and refused to free their slaves. In 1835 Texas set up a separate govern- ment. War followed with Mexico in which hundreds of men from the Southern states and many from South Carolina were brutally killed. Texas finally won the war and in 1845 applied to the United States for admission as a slave- holding state into the Union. Texas was admitted. Whereupon Mexico refused to recognize the independence of Texas and de- clared war upon the United States in 1846. New England threatened to secede from the Union because it feared that with Texas admitted as a slave-holding state the South would have the balance of power in the Senate. 338. The Palmetto Regiment. At the request of Presi- dent Polk, South Carolina raised a regiment of infantry to serve in the war with Mexico. The regiment was commanded by Colonel Pierce M. Butler, of Edgefield, who had been governor CoLOXKL Pierce M. ECTLElt, Governor of South Caro- Una and afterwards Commander of the Pal- metto Regiment, killed in the Mexican War. 172 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA of South Carolina from 1836 to 1838. J. P. Dickinson of Ker- shaw County was elected lieutenant colonel and A. H. Gladden of Richland County, major. The regiment was known as the Palmetto Regiment and by its bravery won a lasting place in the history of American arms. 339. Battles in Mexico. After helping to capture Vera Cruz, tlie principal seaport of Mexico, the Palmetto Regiment as a part of the army commanded by General Winfield Scott, bore the heaviest of the Mexi- can fire at the Battle of Churubusco. Colonel Butler was killed in this battle and Lieutenant Colonel Dickinson mortally wounded. Both were brave men. Just before his death Colonel Butler wrote to General Worth that Lieuten- ant Colonel Dickinson "de- sires a place near the flashing of the guns." Both Butler and Dickinson tired of the in- action to which they were forced before the Battle of Churubusco. The Palmetto Regiment, commanded by Major Gladden after Churu- busco, helped capture Chapultepec, a strong fortress just outside the City of Mexico. The flag of South Carolina was the first to float over any part of the City of Mexico. The fall of this great city practically ended the war. 340. Palmetto Regiment Honored. The Palmetto Regi- ment did its part gloriously in the War with Mexico. Only about three hundred of the thousand or more volunteers who formed the regiment returned after the war ended. The General Assembly voted heavy medals of gold for the officers and of JIONr.MENT KltECTEn IN" IIoNOU OF THE Palmetto Regijiext. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 173 silver for the men. It also had erected in honor of the Palmetto Regiment a monument in the form of a bronze and iron palmetto tree on the State House grounds. 341. Orators and Literary Men. There were no greater orators in America than Calhoun, Hayne, Lowndes, McDuffie and Cheves. The great questions of this period gave them opportunity to display their oratorical gifts. Hugh Swinton Legare and William Henry Trescot were two South Carolina literary men and diplomats who were known in Europe as well as in the United States. In Charleston, there was a group of writers* whose poems, novels and stories were eagerly read and admired all over the United States, Henry Timrod, whom we cherish now as the State's greatest poet, was one of the writers in the Charleston group and Paul Hamil- ton Hayne, also a great poet, was an- other member of the group. 342. Hugh Swinton Legare. Le- gare was born in Charleston in 1797. He was a pupil in Dr. Waddell's famous school in Abbeville County. He went to South Carolina College from the Waddell school and afterward con- tinued his study of law in Paris and Edinburgh. Legare came back to Charleston in 1820 and was elected to the legislature where he served ten years. Then he was made attorney general. In 1832 the President appointed Legare charge d'affaires at the American legation in Brussels. After four years as a diplomat Henry Timrod, South Carolina's most famous poet. *0f the novelists in the Charleston group, William Gilmoro Simms takes first place. Simms was born in Charleston in ISOG and was the moving spirit of the group of literary men in that city. In his work Simms portrays the Southern character in provincial and Revolutionary days. He has drawn impressive pic- tures of the scenery of the Low-Country and truthful characterizations of the Indians. He has written a scries of romances of the Revolution and many volumes dealing with the legends of South Carolina. Simms died in Charleston in 1870. — The Editor. 174 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA he returned to America and entered Congress. Then he was made attorney general. As a scholarly lawyer, he had no equal in America. 343. William Henry Trescot. Another South Carolinian with a national reputation was William Henry Trescot, who was born in Charleston in 1821. He was graduated from the College of Charleston, studied law and was also a planter. Early in life he devoted himself to the study of the diplomatic history of the United States or, in other words, to the study of our country's relations with foreign nations. Trescot wrote a famous book on "The Diplomacy of the Revolution." Like Legare, Trescot was appointed to a diplomatic post in Europe, serving as secretary of the legation in London. He was a member of the legislature of South Carolina. Trescot deserves to be remembered because he was the first man to study thoroughly the diplomatic history of the United States. 344. Paul Hamilton Hayne. Hayne was born in Charleston in 1830. His family was wealthy. His father died early and Hayne was brought up by his mother and his uncle, the states- man Robert Y. Hayne. He studied law but found that his heart was not in it. He gave up his law practice and be- came editor of Russell's Magazine in Charleston, which he made a great suc- cess with the help of the large literary circle of the city. During this period he published three volumes of poetry. Hayne 's poems are read to this day. He was one of the best poets of the old South. 345. Henry Timrod. Timrod was born in Charleston in 1829. His father was a soldier in the Seminole War and also the author of a volume of poems. Timrod tried, like Hayne, to practice law but gave it up because he did not like it. His life Paul Hamilton Hatnb, The South Carolina poet. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 175 is one long story of misfortune. He had no money to support himself while he wrote and had to earn his living as a teacher. He was one of the ablest of the literary men in Charleston. When the war between the North and the South finally came Timrod enlisted as a private, but his health failing he was sent back from the front. He wrote stirring poems about the war. It is not likely that his "Cotton Boll" and "Charleston" will ever be forgotten. Every South Caro- linian should know his "Carolina," which is our state hymn. Timrod easily ranks as one of the greatest poets America has ever produced. 346. A Great Surgeon. One of the great men of the time who became famous in this country and in Europe as a surgeon was James Marion Sims. He was born near the town of Lancaster in 1813. He was a graduate of South Caro- lina College and afterwards studied medicine in Charleston and in Philadelphia. In 1835 he returned to South Carolina and began the practice of medicine in Lancaster but, getting dis- couraged, he moved to Alabama. It was not long before he made a great reputation as a surgeon. He then moved to New York City and established there the first hospital for women in the world. He soon became famed for his wonderful surgical opera- tions. He went to Europe and was hailed as one of the greatest surgeons in the world. Sims will always be honored by the medical profession. J. Marion Sims, The great surgeon. CHAPTER XXIV SOUTH CAROLINA SECEDES FROM THE UNITED STATES 347. Balance of States Threatened. The United States after the victory over Mexico got from that country the territory out of which has since been formed California and some other Western states. This directly concerns us because the great question of the day was whether this territory should be "free" or slaveholding. It became the subject of famous debates in Congress. A great many wished to stop outright the carrying of slaves into the new territory. Others thought that the matter should be left to the people of the territory to decide. John C. Calhoun declared that Congress had no right to pass any law prohibiting citizens of any state from taking their slaves with them if they settled in the new territory. 348. California Seeks Admission. At the close of the Mexican War there were fifteen "free" states and fifteen "slave" states in the Union. This then was an even balance which neither section was willing to have changed in favor of the other. A few days after the treaty of peace with Mexico was signed, gold was discovered in California. Citizens from every state in the Union sold their property and started for the gold fields. In less than two years there were enough people in California to ask for admission as a state into the Union. In 1849 California asked to come in as a "free" state. As this would have destroyed the balance there were threats throughout the South of withdrawing from the Union or seceding if Cali- fornia were allowed to come in as a "free" state. 349. Runaway Slaves. At this time many slaves were escaping from the "slave" into the "free" states. They were helped by Northerners who made a business qI aiding runaway 176 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 177 slaves to escape from their masters. It was estimated that about a thousand a year escaped from the Southern states and that there were about 20,000 living in the ' ' free ' ' states. The system for helping these slaves to escape was called the "underground railroad." There were numerous "stations," usually a cellar or a barn, where the runaways were hidden in the day and hurried on to the next "station" by night, and so on until they reached the "free" states. The South considered this deliberate stealing of its property and resented it accord- ingly. 350. Two Great Speeches in Congress. Two of the most famous speeches in Congress were delivered in the Senate in March, 1850. One was by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts who declared in his speech that the North had wronged the South by helping the slaves to run away from their masters. He also denounced the Abolition Societies for stirring up strife. His speech gave great offense to the North. At this time Cal- houn, after serving the nation and the South for forty years, was a dying man. He tottered into the Senate and his speech had to be read for him. It was a most impressive scene. Calhoun was wrapped in a great cloak. His long white hair framed his thin, pallid face. His eyes flashed and his whole countenance lighted when certain stirring passages of his speech were read. Below are given portions of his speech. Throughout we see a plea for the holding together of the Union but not at the expense of the rights of the states. 351. Parts of Calhoun's Last Speech. "How can the Union be saved? There is but one way . . . and that is by a full and final settlement, 'on the principle of justice, of all questions at issue. The South asks for justice, simple justice, and less she ought not to take . . . "But can this be done? Yes, easily; not by the weaker party . . . but by the stronger. The North has only ... to do justice by conceding to the South an equal right in the acquired territory, and to do her duty by causing the stipulations 178 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA relative to fugitive slaves to be faithfully fulfilled, to cease to agitate the slave question . . . "But will the North agree to this? It is for her to answer. ... If you who represent the stronger party cannot agree to The Old State House Which Stood in Columbia. settle them on the broad principle of justice and duty, say so; and let the states we both represent agree to separate and part in peace." From this speech we see to what lengths South Carolina was prepared to go in defense of her rights — even to the breaking up of the Union. 352. Death of Calhoun. The great Calhoun died in Wash- ington at the end of March, 1850. The whole nation respected him, and the whole South mourned him. South Carolina lost in him her greatest statesman. His body was carried to Charleston and buried there. Monuments have been erected to Calhoun in Charleston and elsewhere. 353. Compromise of 1850. In 1850 John H. Means became governor of South Carolina following Governor Whitemarsh B. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 179 Seabrook. In August of that year the dispute about California was ended in Congress by alloMdng California to come into the Union as a "free" state and at the same time passing a very severe runaway slave act. Letting California enter the Union as a "free" state was offensive to the South and passing the severe runaway slave law was very offensive to the North. So the Compromise of 1850, as the two acts were called, was the cause of added bitterness between the sections. 354. Southern Feeling Changes Toward Slavery. The Abolitionists had caused a complete change of feeling in the South on the question of holding slaves. South Carolina had seen the evil of slavery long before the Revolutionary War. There had been many plans for the freeing of the negroes. It is true that the negroes, brought from Africa in a savage state, had become civilized under slavery and the great majority of them were treated with kindness and mercy. But there was always the opportunity for injustice and cruelty from stern, unjust masters or overseers. The time was passing when the world thought it right to hold human beings in bondage. How- ever it was a big question to settle. The South felt that in any case its citizens should be the ones to settle it. When the Aboli- tion Societies were formed in the North and Northern preachers and lecturers denounced the South on all occasions, the South naturally resented it. The attitude of this section towards slavery began to change. Southerners would no longer admit the evil of holding slaves. They emphasized the fact that slavery had taken savages into a civilized, Christian land. They brought out the fact that before these negroes came to the South they had never even heard of Christ. Their masters had taught them how to till the soil and how to live a useful life. 355. "Uncle Tom's Cabin." About this time a book was published by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a Northern woman. It was called "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and in it only the cruel, bestial side of slavery was described. It was a side undoubtedly in existence but one which was overshadowed by the kindly treat- 180 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA ment the great majority of slaves received. This book caused much bitterness in the South. 356. Moving into Kansas. John L. Manning became gov- ernor of South Carolina in 1852 and was followed in 1854 by James H. Adams. Interest in state affairs amounted to nothing compared to the question whether Kansas should be admitted as a "slave" or a "free" state. Great numbers from both the North and South went to Kansas to influence its admission to the Union. Many went from South Carolina. Lives were lost in disputes between the settlers in Kansas. 357. Brooks Canes Sumner. Admitting Kansas was de- bated in Congress with great bitterness. Senator Sumner of Massachusetts, a learned but narrow-minded Abolitionist, made a speech in which he used insulting language about Senator Butler of South Carolina who was in favor of Kansas being ad- mitted as a "slave" state. Senator Butler was not present. The uncalled for insult was resented by his nephew, Congressman Preston S. Brooks, who gave Senator Sumner a severe beating with a cane. The North was indignant over the affair and the South was of the opinion that Sumner had got only what he deserved. 358. The "John Brown Raid." Robert F. W. Allston be- came governor of South Carolina in 1856 and was followed in 1858 by William H. Gist. These four years were ones of great importance. They were marked by the increasing violence of the Abolitionists at which the South grew more and more en- raged. In Kansas an Abolitionist named John Brown organ- ized a band and one night made a raid on the farmhouses of several slaveholders. Seven or .eight men, unarmed, were killed and their bodies horribly cut up. Savage Indians could not have been more brutal. In 1859 the same John Brown, who in the meantime had spent his time helping runaway slaves to escape from their masters, moved to Virginia and settled there with the idea of starting a great uprising among the slaves. He collected rifles and ammunition furnished by Northern HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 181 CIIIRIESTON MERCURY EXTRA: I OltllM 4>t K. sympathizers and made a night attack on the arsenal at Harper's Ferry. The attempt on the arsenal failed. Brown was captured and hanged. There was great excitement all over the South over the "John Brown raid." It had the effect of unifying the South against the North. 359. Presidential Election of i860. As the year 1860 drew near there was intense excitement in both sections, for this was the time for the election of the president of the United States. The "slave" states were determined to elect a man who was not opposed to slavery. The Northern states were equally deter- mined to elect a man opposed to slavery. South Carolina threat- ened to secede, or withdraw from the Union, if the Northern Republican candidate was elected. 360. Lincoln's Election. Abraham Lincoln was the Re- publican candidate for president. The Republicans had anti-slavery as the chief plank in their plat- form. Lincoln was a man of lowly birth who had studied law and made his own way in the world. He had been a member of the legislature of Illinois and then a member of Congress. He opposed slavery. On November 6, 1860, he was elected president of the United States. 361. South Carolina Secedes from the Union. South Caro- lina immediately called a Con- vention to meet in December at „ - LxTUA Edition of a Chauleston C olumbia. On account of small- newspapeu announcing that ,,„^ ,• r<^ u- J.1 /-( ^- South Carolina had Seceded pox m Columbia the Convention from the union. UNION IIISSMYIill! 182 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA moved to Charleston. The most prominent leaders of the State were sent to this Convention. The State was wild with en- thusiasm. On Dee. 20, 1860, the ordinance of secession was passed. By unanimous vote the union between South Carolina and the United States was declared dissolved. Once again, as in 1776 when she had declared her independence of England, South Carolina was a free and independent state. 362. Excitement. Crowds waited outside the convention hall in Charleston to hear the news. When the word was passed that South Carolina had withdrawn from the Union they gave wild cheers of delight. The bells of St. Michael's rang in triumph, drums beat and cannon roared. The people were wild with joy. Secession from the United States had stirred South Carolina as it had never been stirred before in its history. 363. People Approve of Secession. For once the people of South Carolina were united in a matter deeply affecting the State. There was no division of opinion over the right to secede and no question raised as to its being the best course, except by a scattered individual here and there. The Revolutionary War was fought — and largely won — by South Carolina over the op- position of a large part of its people. The people split sharply on the question of how best to nullify the unjust tariff laws in 1832. But in 1860 there was practically no opposition to seced- ing from the United States. The slave-owners believed that Lincoln's election made it certain that they would be robbed of their slaves. South Carolinians who owned no slaves believed St. Michael's Church in ,,,.11 i . 1 j chahleston. that the slaves, who outnumbered 1 s # ^ iH _^_.r , Ml HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 183 the white people, would be freed and rule the State. Slave- owners and non-slaveowners thought the North had acted wrongly toward the South in passing high tariff laws. They be- lieved it would be better for the North and the South to have separate governments. After South Carolina seceded, she called on other states to secede also and join her in forming a con- federacy or union of Southern states. 364. Firing on "The Star of the West." Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island was commanded by Major Anderson, a United States officer. He moved to Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor because he thought it stronger than Fort Moultrie. The United States sent supplies for Major Anderson on a steamer, The Star of the West. This vessel was fired on from Morris Island by some Citadel cadets. The Star of the West retired without trying further to reach Fort Sumter. 365. Forming the Confederacy. After the firing on The Star of the West, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Florida seceded from the Union. By February, 1861, Louisiana and Texas also withdrew from the Union. A convention of these seven States met in Montgomery, Alabama, and formed the Con- federate States of America. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was chosen president. The Confederate government then immedi- ately seized every fort, except four, in the seven states. It also took possession of the navy yards, post offices, custom houses and arsenals. Among the forts still held by the United States was Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. CHAPTER XXV THE WAR BETWEEN THE SECTIONS BEGINS 366. South Carolina Prepares for War. South Carolina began at once to equip vessels for war and raised the Palmetto flag over them. She seized United States vessels sailing in South Carolina waters. She built floating batteries of palmetto logs and mounted heavy guns on them. Gov- ernor Francis W. Pickens issued commis- sions in the naval service of the State. A regiment of infantry regulars was formed and the command given to Richard H. Anderson of Sumter. A regiment of artil- lery regulars was formed and the com- mand given to Roswell S. Ripley, a native of Ohio, but a resident of Charleston. A regiment of volunteers for six months' service in the State was formed and the command given to Maxcy Gregg. A call was sent out for ten regiments of volun- teers for one year's service. The flrst regiment to organize under this call chose Johnson Hagood of Barnwell as its colonel. These soldiers were stationed near Charleston and drilled. 367. South Carolina Takes Fort Sumter. In March, 1861, news came that the United States had sent a fleet of ships to Charleston. The new regiments were hurried to the city. It was decided to try to take Fort Sumter from Major Anderson, the United States officer who held it, before the fleet arrived. On April 12, the South Carolina forces began to bombard the fort. The city was in the wildest excitement. The Battery at Charleston was crowded with people who gathered there to 184 General Roswell S. Ripley. Prominpnt among the defenders ' of South Carolina during the war. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 185 watch the battle. At one time the United States flag over the fort was shot down and the onlookers cheered wildly. One of the crowd yelled ' ' Hurrah for Anderson, too ! ' '. The firing lasted thirty-three hours and Major Anderson surrendered. Fort Sumter was in the hands of the State again, and many felt that the war was ended. 368. Richmond Made the Confederate Capital. After South Carolina took Fort Sumter, Virginia seceded from the Union and asked to join the Confederacy. North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee soon followed suit making now eleven States in the Confederacy. Virginia invited the Confederate government to make Richmond its capital. The offer was accepted and President Davis went to that city. The first Confederate Congress was called to meet there. 369. Greater Strength of the North. At the outset it looked as if the United States had the advantage of the Con- federacy in every way. In the first place, there were twenty-three Northern states while there were only eleven in the Confederacy. The population of the Northern states was 22,000,000 while the South had only 9,000,000 and a large part of these were negroes and unfit for army service. In the second place, the North was far richer than the South. It had great foundries and factories, while the South was only rich in agriculture. The North could thus furnish an army with powder and ammunition, while the South had to build works in order to supply its army. Then the United States had a regular trained army of 16,367 men and a navy which, how- ever badly trained and small, was better than none. Lastly, the North had the great advantage of foreign relations ; that is, foreign countries recognized the United States as a nation. Confederate iNFANTUYMAN. 186 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 370. The Southerners' Advantages. From the greater strength of the North it woukl seem certain that victory would lie with the United States. But the Confederates instead of be- ing discouraged felt sure of success. Every Southern man who had the strength to carry a gun thought that he was the equal of at least three Yankees. The men of the South were able horsemen and skillful riflemen. They had disciplined slaves for two hundred years. They were noted for their daring and courage. At that time the South also had as fine statesmen as any nation could produce. The fact that the Confederates were to fight on their own soil for their homes and their families was also in their favor. They were not alarmed over the advantages the North possessed but entered the war with every hope of winning. 371. Two Main Objects of the Northern Army. The North had two main objects in view from the outset. The first was to keep its own capital, Washington, safe ; and to capture the Confederate capital, Richmond. The second was to get con- trol of the Mississippi River, which would cut the Confederacy in two, as it would separate Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana from the other Southern states. 372. Confederate Plans. The Confederacy formed two great armies. One was called the Army of Northern Virginia and the command of it was given to General Joseph E. Johnston. This army was to protect Richmond. The second army was called the Army of the West and the command of it was given to General Albert Sidney Johnston. This was to keep the Northern army from taking the Mississippi. There were some soldiers from South Carolina who volunteered for service in the Army of the West, but the greater number from this state fought CONFEKKKATE AUTILLEUYMAN. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 187 in Virginia with the Army of Northern Virginia, so our chief interest will be in the battles in Virginia. 373. First Battle of Manassas. In the early part of the summer of 1861 the Confederate soldiers gathered in Virginia. The main body of the army, under the command of General Beauregard, camped at Manassas in eastern Virginia. The Northern or Union army, as it was called, was camped on the Potomac river opposite Washington. On July 16 this army moved to attack Beauregard. The forces were almost equal. At first the Confederates were driven back about a mile to a plateau where General Thomas J. Jackson stood. AVitli him were Wade Hampton with the Hampton Legion and General Barnard E. Bee of South Carolina. As the men began to waver at the approach of the Union arni}^, General Bee cried: "Look at Jackson! There he stands like a stone wall." Rallying, the Confederates drove the enemy back. As they fought a small force from General Johnston's army came up and victory lay with the Confederates. The Union army fled thinking that all of General Johnston 's army was upon them. It is said that some of the Northerners dropped their guns and ran long after no one pursued them. Am- munition, guns, wagons and provisions were left behind and fell into the hands of the Confederates. The South Carolina of- ficers at First Manassas were General M. L. Bonham, Colonel N. G. Evans, General General Barnard b. Barnard E. Bee and Colonel Wade Hamp- billed at Sffirst battle ton. Colonel Evans was in command of a «* Manassas, gave . . Jackson the nlck- brigade and held a very miportant position name "Stonewaii." in the battle. General Bee, who had given Jackson the nickname of "Stonewall," was killed during the battle. General Johnston, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, afterwards said that the day was saved by Wade Hamp- ton of South Carolina. 188 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA General N. G. Evans, Who resigned from the United States Army to fight for his State. 374. Effect of the Battle. The defeat of the Union army at Manassas was a great shock to the people of the North who had been certain that victory would be theirs. So certain were they that many members of the United States Congress had ridden down in their carriages from Washington to see the great victory over the "rebels" as the Northerners called the Confederate sol- diers. The defeat was a terrible blow to their hopes but it made them realize the seriousness of the war and the need for preparation. On the other hand the South was carried away with enthusiasm over the victory. They had taken Fort Sumter from a Union force and had made a Union army flee in a panic at Manassas. They heard that the North was calling its own army a band of cowards, and they felt that it was not going to be very hard to defeat them. 375. The United States Takes Port Royal. In Novem- ber, 1861, Port Royal fell before a large Northern fleet. The rich rice growing country about Port Royal and Beaufort was overrun by Union soldiers. The whole section was laid waste by these soldiers. Beaufort was one of the richest towns of its size in the world at that time and was therefore a fine place to plunder. The large plantations and the princely houses along the coast were pillaged. This section was about the first Confederate ground the Unionists gained. 376. Summary of Year 1861. On the whole, however, the Confederacy was well satisfied with its success in the year 1861. Its men had been put in training. Manufactories had been. General M. C. Butler, Noted Cavalry Leader. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 189 built. It had won a great victory in the one big battle of the year. It had taken Fort Sumter, and had been successful in small battles in Virginia and Missouri. Altogether the South was well pleased with the results of the first year of the war. CHAPTER XXVI SECOND YEAR OF THE WAR— 1862 377. Confederate Losses in 1862. The year 1862 opened with discouraging losses to the Confederates. Fort Donaldson, one of their strongest points on the Mississippi River, was cap- tured by the Unionists. Shortly afterward the Confederates won the Battle of Shiloh but in doing so they lost very heavily and in the battle General Albert Sidney Johnston, the great com- mander, was mortally wounded. In May New Orleans was cap- tured by the Unionists. This was a terrible loss because New Orleans had great iron foundries which were of utmost im- portance to the Confederacy. The city was put in command of B. F. Butler, a brutal Union officer who earned for himself the nickname of "Beast." 378. Charleston Under Military Rule. South Carolina now became alarmed for Charleston and Governor Pickens proclaimed martial law over the city. All roads were watched and no one allowed to enter or to leave without a permit. Boats were ordered to anchor at certain wharves where they were closely inspected. The sale of liquors was stopped. The fall of New Orleans had made South Carolina feel that her chief city was not safe. 379. Enemy Attack Charleston. In the midst of these preparations the fleet that had captured Port Royal and Beaufort decided to at- tack Charleston. The last of May three gunboats entered Map showing Charleston Harbor during tho War P.etween tho Sections. 190 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 191 Stono River and began to shell Cole's and Battery islands. Soon these gunboats were running up and down the river every day shelling everything in sight. 380. Gallantry of Colonel Capers. In June there were more than twenty Union vessels in sight of our troops on James Island. It was reported that they had landed on one end of the island. Colonel Ellison Capers was sent out with several com- panies to find out their position. He came upon them and in a sharp fight drove them back, although his force was greatly out- numbered. "When he had driven them back a mile and a half, more enemy soldiers came up and a gunboat on the river com- menced to fire on Capers and his men. Capers retreated then in good order hav- ing captured twenty-three prisoners. He was highly praised for his gallantry and good judgment in this fight. Colonel Capers was afterwards promoted to gen- eral and in later years became Episcopal bishop of South Carolina. 381. The Battle of Secessionville. There were several small fights on James Island during the days following. Expect- ing a battle the four best South Carolina regiments were formed into a brigade and the command was given to Colonel Johnson Hagood. Shortly afterward word came that the enemy was advancing on the fort at Secessionville. Colonel Hagood ordered the brigade there. When it arrived the enemy was making the second assault upon the fort. The first had been a surprise. Colonel Lamar, in command of the fort, had been awake all night looking after strengthening it and had fallen asleep on the walls. Awakened by the coming of the enemy he aroused the garrison. When Colonel Hagood arrived the Unionists were defeated with great loss. They were so badly beaten that they gave up the attempt to take Charleston. Ellison Capers, General in the Con- federate Army and afterwards Episcopal Bishop of South Caro- lina. 192 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 382. Enemy Raids. South Carolina was now divided into several military districts to protect the people of the state from enemy raids. Yankee gunboats began running up and down the rivers with the idea of destroying the railways. Soldiers were placed in these districts to prevent this, and to protect the people of the country. These raids caused excitement in South Caro- lina, but the great interest of the people lay in Virginia where the game of war was being played on a grand scale. 383. The Peninsula Campaign. In the spring the Union- ists began what was known as the Peninsula Campaign. This was another effort to take Richmond, the Confederate capital. The campaign began at Williamsburg and ended with the battle of Malvern Hill. The Unionists failed to take Richmond. General Joseph E. John- ston was wounded in the Battle of Seven Pines during this campaign and General Robert E. Lee was made commander-in- chief of the Southern army. Following General^ BENJAMIN ^^^ g^^^jg ^f g^^^^ p-^^^g ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ Distinguishefi by gal- days of bloody fighting before Richmond, ^ntry at Malvern rpj^^j^ ^|^g Campaign ended With the Battle of Malvern Hill in which General Benjamin Huger of South Carolina gallantly led his division. 384. South Carolinians in the Peninsula Campaign. South Carolina took a prominent part in winning the Peninsula Cam- paign. General Richard H. Anderson of South Carolina was in command of one-half of the Confederate forces. At Williams- burg General Mieah Jenkins led the South Carolina regiment known as the Palmetto Sharpshooters. General Jenkins dis- tinguished himself at the Battle of Seven Pines by charging a thicket held by the Unionists. Charging over logs and breast- works he drove them out of their camp in the woods and chased them into a second camp. He then captured this camp and drove them into the swamp. General Wade Hampton led a HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 193 General Richard H. Anderson, Comma nilor of half the ConftMlerate Forces in the Peninsula Cam- paign. brigade in the Battle of Seven Pines. His men fought with desperate bravery and half of them were killed or wounded. 385. Campaign in Northern Virginia. The Unionists had failed to capture Rich- mond by attacking from the south so now they tried a campaign in northern Vir- ginia. The battles of this campaign were fought around the field of the first great battle of the war — Manassas. One battle was fought and ended in victory for the Con- federates on almost the same ground and was called the Second Battle of Manassas. General Maxcy Gregg of South Carolina with great bravery held the Confederate left in this battle. General Wade Hamp- ton was second in command of the cavalry of our army during this campaign. The Confederates were wonderfully successful throughout the campaign and early in September the Unionists gave up this attempt to take Richmond. 386. The Chambersburg Raid. The Confederates planned a raid to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in the fall of 1862 to destroy the great supply of provisions the Unionists had stored there. Wade Hampton was placed second in command and Colonel M. C. Butler of South Carolina had charge of Hampton's advance. South Carolina had just cause to be proud of their bravery and success. They reached Chambersburg and Hamp- ton was made military governor of the town and Butler was placed in immediate command. They destroyed the supplies and ammunition but did no harm to private , . .1 1 ,. ,, . General Micah property or to the people of the town. Jenkins, Then they hurried homeward. They Whose saiiantry at Seven Pines was of destroyed about $250,000 worth of the the highest order. 194 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA General Maxct Gregg, A brave Confederate Officer killea at Fred- ericksburg. supplies of the enemy and brought home with them over a thousand horses. 387. Hampton and Butler Capture Christmas Provisions. Just before Christ- mas in 1862 the Union army was camped near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Wade Hampton learned through his scouts that a long train of wagons carrying a great supply of Christmas things for the Union army was on its way from Washington to Fredericksburg. Hampton decided to try to take some of these supplies for the Con- federates. Colonel Butler attacked the wagon train one night while the Union soldiers were asleep in their camp. Butler cap- tured the wagons and divided the goods among his men. Thus the Confederate soldiers were well supplied with clothing they needed badly as well as with all kinds of good things to eat for Christmas. 388. Battle of Fredericksburg. General Lee's army was camped on the heights near Fredericksburg. With General Lee were the brigades of Joseph B. Kershaw and Maxcy Gregg of South Carolina. The Union army at- tacked the Confederates on December 13. The battle was a great victory for the Confederates. A part of Kershaw's brigade fought on top of a hill. The Unionists tried in vain to drive them from this hill. In this battle General Maxcy Gregg of South Carolina was killed while fighting bravely. Colonel Samuel Mc- Gowan was given command of his brigade and promoted to brigadier general soon afterward. 5^^^Qi> Mc- General Samuel GOWAN, Who succeeded to the conininnd of Gregg's Brigade. CHAPTER XXVII THIRD AND FOURTH YEARS OF THE WAR— 1863 and 1864 389. Unionists Capture Vicksburg. The year 1863 was an anxious one for the Confederates in spite of their great suc- cesses in Virginia. This was because the Unionists had for six months beseiged the important post of Vicksburg on tlie Missis- sippi. The fall of Vicksburg into the hands of the North would mean that the Confederacy would be cut in two. Texas, Louis- iana and Arkansas would be divided from the other Confederate states. The city of Vicksburg was shut off from the world by the Union army which surrounded it. Food was running low. In the spring the only food to be had was mule meat, dried peas and corn meal. By July this was gone and, as the people were starv- ing, Vicksburg surrendered. This was a crushing blow to the Confederates. 390. Battle of Gettysburg. Just about the time of the surrender of Vicksburg General Lee marched into Pennsylvania. With him was Wade Hampton, who was second in command of the cavalry of the army. They met the Unionists at Gettysburg. The battle raged for three days and about fifty thousand men were killed or wounded, about an equal number on both sides. The battle ended in defeat for the Confederates and General Lee's army was so badly crippled that he had to retreat into Virginia. 391. The Victory of Chickamauga. Meantime, the Union Army of the West had steadily moved eastward after the fall of Vicksburg. In mid-summer it met the Confederate Army of the West at Chickamauga, Tennessee. There were three South Carolina Brigades in this army, Kershaw's, Gist's and Mani- gault's. The battle lasted two days and was one of the bloodiest of the war. Many brave men from this state lost their lives 195 196 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA General Joseph B. Keushaw, Whose Brigade fought iu Virginia and in the West. during these two days. The battle ended in victory for the Confederates. 392. Battle of Missionary Ridge. After the battle the Confederates camped on Missionary Ridge, a mountain near Chattanooga. Now the entire Union Army of tlie West which was far larger than the Confederate army attacked the Con- federates on Missionary Ridge. The Con- federates were driven back in utter defeat and had to retreat into the mountains of Georgia. This left the entire Mississippi valley in the hands of the enemy. The South began to realize the seriousness of the struggle. 393- Fight of the Ironclads. Charleston harbor was blockaded by United States ships so that no Confederate vessels could get to sea except by slipping past the blockaders at night or during a fog. This was called running the blockade. Every effort was made to build ironclad vessels to fight these enemy ships and drive them away. At last three ironclads the Palmetto State, the Chicora and the Charleston were finished. Just before dawn one morning in January, 1863, the Palmetto State and the Chicora steamed out of the harbor towards the enemy ships. The Palmetto State attacked the nearest United States vessel while the Chicora steamed on and began a fight with several of of the ships. The attack of the two Confederate ironclads took the enemy by surprise. The nearest ship surrendered and the Palmetto State hurried to help the Chicora. A fierce battle followed and and the enemy ships were driven away. The victory of the ironclads was celebrated The New Ironsides, One of the TTnited States Ships Blockading Charleston. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 197 Colonel Alfked Riiett, Who commanded Port Sumter (luring the attack in April, 1863. in old St. Philip's Clmrch. 394. Another Effort to Take Charleston. In April, 1863, the fleet of the enemy steamed toward Fort Sumter which was commanded by Colonel Alfred Rhett. Our soldiers on the islands in the harbor turned their fire on the leading enemy ship and soon forced it to retire. Then the second ship of the enemy fleet took the lead and got within less than a half mile of Fort Sumter when the fire of our soldiers forced it to retire also. The other ships kept up the fight for a time and then dropped out of sight. Our soldiers on the islands and in Fort Sumter had defeated the first attempt of the campaign of 1863 against Charleston. 395. Campaign to Take Charleston Re-opened. In July the campaign to take Charleston was begun again. So many South Carolina soldiers had gone to Virginia and to the West to fight that there were not enough men left to defend Charles- ton. Governor M. L. Bonham, who became governor in 1862 after Governor Pickens, sent slaves to help build the works around the city. In July the Union sol- diers appeared and instead of directly at- tacking Charleston forced a landing on Morris Island. We had few soldiers on this island, but for two months they held the enemy off. The enemy had ten times as many men, but each marked by acts of bravery troops in resisting them. At of this time, they were forced to retire General m. l. Bonham, ^^-^^ leave the enemy in possession of Morris Second War Governor of the State. island. day was of our the end 198 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Major Stephen Elliott, Daring Commander of Fort Sumter during the sec- ond lialf of the war. 396. Fort Sumter Attacked. The Unionists now demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter. Major Stephen Elliott, the brave officer who had succeeded Colonel Rhett in command, refused. Then the Union- ists made an attack on the fort with a fleet of forty barges. "When the barges got within a few yards of the fort, ]\Iajor Elliott ordered his men to begin firing. This they did and some even threw stones into the barges, upsetting some of them. Elliott had captured over one hundred men when the remainder of the Unionists turned back. 397. Fort Sumter in Ruins. The Unionists shelled Fort Sumter continu- ously all through the winter of 1863 and the spring of 1861. The old fort lay a mass of ruins. But the brave defenders did not give up. They burrowed under the ruins like wood-rats and held to their posts. Under the wreck of the fort they made for themselves as comfortable quarters as possible. They had bunks for the men not on duty. They had a hospital for the sick and wounded and made the whole cheerful by whitewashing the walls and keeping everything clean and in order. 398. On the Sea Islands. On the sea islands our soldiers settled themselves for the winter of 1863-1864. They had always to be on guard against attack, but in many ways they had a pleasant time. The army food given them was very poor and plain, but they were near enough home for boxes and baskets to be sent to them. They were often visited by their friends and families. It was not unusual to see ladies riding on horseback and in carriages about the camp on James Island. Dances were given at posts likely to be fired on at any time. There were horse races, rabbit hunts and cock fights to keep the soldiers amused in their idle hours. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 199 399. Preparations for Campaign of 1864 in Virginia. Anotlier campaign to take Richmond was begun in 1864. The command was given to General Ulysses Grant who had led the Union army successfully in the West. Grant had under him iNSiDD FouT Sumter During tiil ^^ inilr op lb03. 150,000 men. It was a splendid army, well drilled, handsomely clothed, well fed and with plenty of guns and ammunition. Money in great sums was spent in fitting out this army. On May 4 it began to move. It was a brilliant mass of blue fol- lowed by thousands of wagons loaded with luxuries for the sol- diers. It was said that this train of wagons in a straight line would have stretched out for sixty miles. 400. The Confederate Army. To fight this gorgeous army of 150,000 men moving toward Richmond was "a slender line of gray." Lee had in his army less than 60,000 men. These soldiers were unpaid and underfed. Each man was supposed to get a half pound of pork or salt bacon and a pint of corn meal or flour a day, but they seldom got these full rations. There was very little sugar and coffee and there was little food to be had from the Virginia country, for that section had been stripped bare. The clothes of Lee's soldiers were in rags and tatters. 200 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Many had no shoes or hats and often had to depend on getting horses and saddles and ammunition by capturing these from the enemy. The sick and wounded Confederate soldiers could be given only the poorest and simplest treatments, as medicines were very, very scarce. 401. Grant's Campaign. The Unionists' plan was that while Grant with his great army moved on Rich- mond from the north General B. F, Butler, "Beast" Butler, who had pil- laged New Orleans, was to approach Richmond from the south and destroy all of the crops, mills and railroads. Butler was opposed at every step and several battles took place. In these Confederate Flag Over Fort ^cre twO South Carolina brigades, SuMTEK After Bombard- ^ , . , MENT. Hagood s and Butler s, which had just arrived from the sea islands. While "Beast" Butler was trying to lay waste the country to the south of Richmond, Grant moved on the capital of the Confederacy from the north. His campaign lasted one month and he failed to take Richmond. The first battle of the campaign was in May and took place in a wood known as the Wilderness. It was a victory for the Confederates. The second battle was at Spottsylvania and was a victory for neither side. McGowan, Kershaw and Jenkins of South Carolina with their commands fought in this battle. The losses on both sides were frightful. A week later the last battle of the cam- paign took place at Cold Harbor. General Lee was in a strong position, but Grant ordered an attack anyway. The battle lasted less than an hour. The Charleston Light Dragoons fought here with desperate valor. It is said that in this battle was the bloodiest half hour in American history. Grant lost nearly thirteen thousand men during the battle. This battle ended the campaign. Grant withdrew, having lost 60,000 men from Wilderness to Cold Harbor. This was a greater number than HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 201 Replacing the Flag Over Foet Sumter. Lee had in his entire command at the beginning of the cam- paign. 402. Siege of Petersburg. Grant then gave up the attempt to take Richmond directly and moved to attack Petersburg, a town about twenty miles be- low Richmond. There fol- lowed three days of steady fighting, called the Battle of Petersburg. Grant lost heavily. He found that he could not take the town by storm so he settled himself before Petersburg for a siege. The siege lasted through the summer of 1864 and the fol- lowing winter. The Con- federates suffered untold hardships. The fighting was done in trenches. No one was allowed to leave his place with- out permission. From dark to daylight half of the men could lie down in the bottom of the trenches and sleep while the other half stayed on guard. At dawn day after day the shelling would begin. No part of the trenches was safe and there were many deaths. Aside from the danger there was awful dis- comfort. With each rain, no matter how slight, the trenches became soggy and with heavy rains our soldiers stood waist deep in water. The trenches became so filthy that by August nearly one-half of the men had to be taken out on account of sickness. Among the South Carolina troops at Petersburg werei the brigades of Kershaw, Elliott and Hagood. 403. The Trevillian Campaign. AVhile the fighting was go- ing on in the trenches at Petersburg, General Grant sent General Sheridan into the northern part of Virginia to destroy the railroad which connected Richmond with the Shenandoah Valley. This valley was the rich farming section where all the 202 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA food came from to feed the Confederate armies. Grant thought if the railroad could be destroyed he would starve Lee's army and force its surrender in that way. Wade Hampton learned of this plan and with only half as many men as Sheridan started out to prevent the destruction of the railroad. He came upon Sheridan at Trevillian Station. The fighting lasted three days and Hampton completely outgeneraled Sheridan. Only a few feet of the railroad were destroyed and, after losing more than twice as many men as Hampton, Sheridan retreated. Confederate Cavalry Camp at Night 404. Hampton and His Cavalry, In August, 1864, Gen- eral Lee placed General Hampton in chief command of the cavalry of the army. In the last months of the year he annoyed the enemy in every possible way. Once he made a cattle raid and brought off 2,468 beeves. He also captured a large quantity of the enemy's stores, burned three camps, carried off eleven wagons and 304 prisoners. In this raid he marched 100 miles in three days. The stores and beeves captured were a godsend HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 203 to the starving Confederates. This is only one of a great many- instances of Wade Hampton's services to the Confederate army. 405. Union Lines Tighten. While the Confederates were winning almost every battle in Virginia they were losing the war in the West. After the defeat of the Confederate Army of the West at Missionary Ridge in Tennessee the army had retreated to Georgia. General Grant now sent General William T. Sher- man with 100,000 men to defeat this army and to capture At- lanta, which was an important base of supplies for the Con- federates and also a great railroad center. The campaign lasted four months. Though losing heavily in men, Sherman steadily drew nearer Atlanta and finally the Confederates were forced to retreat and leave the city to the enemy. The Unionists were in the very heart of the Confederacy. The people of the South did not realize that the war was going against them. To Lee's army "erect and defiant, there appeared no reason why the war should not go on another four years." No one felt that the South would be defeated. The Confederates were winning almost every battle in Virginia and they could not realize that the Unionists were upon them from the West and that their men were exhausted for lack of food and supplies. CHAPTER XXVIII DOWNFALL OF THE CONFEDERACY 406. Sherman Destroys Atlanta. Sherman entirely de- stroyed Atlanta and then began his famous march to the sea. He divided his army into four parts and ordered them to march in parallel lines and to cover fifteen miles a day. The soldiers had orders to destroy all railroads and public property. But they did not stop at this. The path of this army was from forty to sixty miles broad. Sherman's soldiers swept this path clean — burning homes, destroying crops and driving ofif cattle. As the Unionists came to Savannah that city was evacuated. The enemy had now reached the gateway to lower South Carolina. 407. South Carolinians Fighting in North Carolina. When a Union fleet sailed into North Carolina waters to take Fort Fisher near Wilmington, General Lee sent soldiers to the aid of this fort. Among them was General Johnson Hagood with his South Carolina brigade. The Confederates fought against overpowering numbers and the fort had to be sur- rendered. After the surrender of the fort the Confederates held their posts below Wilmington for a time but were forced to give them up. After destroying everything that they could not carry away which would be of value to the enemy, the Con- federates abandoned Wilmington. 408. The End in Sight. It is a curious fact that the South did not realize even with the fall of Wilmington that the end of the Confederacy was in sight. Every Southern port was captured or blockaded. Lee 's army was in a starving condition. Sherman stood at the very gateway of South Carolina. The Confederate Army of the West had been badly beaten. And yet the South did not know that it was whipped. Plans were 204 HISTOEY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 205 General Joiinson Hagood, Elected Governor of South Carolina after the war. made by the Confederate leaders for a big campaign to start in the spring of 1865. 409. Sherman Marches From Savan- nah to Columbia. Sherman's soldiers made threats while still in Georgia of what they were going to do to South Carolina. This was because South Carolina had been the first state to secede from the Union and to start the war. On entering the Palmetto state, Sherman's men began to destroy willfully everything in sight. It was thought that Sherman would march directly to Charleston, that hotbed of seces- sion, but he turned toward Columbia, marching through the towns and villages of Hardeeville, Grahamville, Gillisonville, McPhersonville, Barnwell, Blackville, Midway and Orangeburg. All of our men were away fighting. There was no one left in South Carolina but women and children and helpless old men. From Savannah for eighty miles along the road of the army the homes of but two white families were left standing. Cotton gins, factories, barns and fences were burned. Provisions were destroyed, the crops laid waste and the cattle carried off. In many cases, even though mothers begged on their knees, Sher- man 's soldiers drove off the cows on which little babies depended for milk. The Union soldiers had queer ideas of fun. On many plantations, in great merriment, they poured out barrels of syrup on the ground, and dumped into it bags of flour and grits and sugar so as to spoil the food. They treated the old men harshly and insulted the women. They stole the jewelry and silver and divided it among themselves. Special vengeance was wreaked on the homes of prominent South Carolinians. General Jamison's home, with its fine library; "AVoodlands," the home of William Gilmore Simms with another fine library; "Mill- wood," the home of "Wade Hampton, and other homes too numerous to name, were burned. Destroying as they marched, 206 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA the Unionists reached Lexington, after a small battle near Orangeburg. At Lexington it was common talk among the soldiers that Columbia was to be burned. 14 CORPS '■*• =0 CORPS »•• ••j-'iy CORPS Kty Corps I ST" CORRS aoiscofcRs Map showing the line of march of Sherman's Army through South Carolina in 1865. 410. The Unionists Enter Columbia. On February 16, 1865, Columbia heard the roar of cannon. On reaching the river the enemy began shelling the city. The next day the Unionists crossed the river and General Hampton, with a small number of soldiers, moved out of the city as the large army of the enemy entered. Mayor Goodwyn met Sherman and sur- rendered Columbia to him. Sherman promised to protect the city, saying to Mayor Goodwyn, ' ' Go home and rest assured that your city will be as safe in my hands as if under your control. ' ' 411. The Burning of Columbia. The Union army entered Columbia and encamped ou the streets and in vacant houses. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 207 Almost immediately they began to break into stores and ware- lu)uses, taking from these what money and jewelry they could find and scattering the rest of the goods. The streets of the city swarmed with blue-coated soldiers. Toward evening the soldiers became more and more noisy and unruly and every- where Columbians were threatened with their coming fate. In some cases warnings to escape were given citizens by kindly soldiers. Thus it was not a surprise when at dark three Looking North Down Main Street in Columbia After Sherman Burned the City. rockets went up and, at this signal, fire broke out almost simul- taneously in several quarters of the city. The Columbians brought out the fire engines and hose but the Union soldiers stopped them from using these by disabling the engines and cutting up the hose with their swords. As the fire made greater headway the soldiers became wilder and wilder. A perfect carnival of robbery followed. They made no concealment of setting houses on fire. Some ran in and set fire to lace curtains. Others threw coals of fire into the beds. As the fire became general the streets were filled with terror- stricken women and children who ran about with their clothes and valuables tied up in sheets. The Union soldiers were now crazed by the liquors they had stolen from the cellars of the city. They snatched away the bundles from the women. One eye-witness in Columbia on that terrible niglit in February, 1865, says that he heard the cries of distress from women and 208 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA children pursued by the soldiers, saw them pull rings from the women's fingers, jerk earrings out of their ears, and tear off their clothing. Numbers of the Columbians made their way to the grounds of the State Insane Asylum, the loyal slaves following them with bundles. Soon the Asylum grounds were dotted with these homeless Columbians, who spent the night shivering under the trees. The morning, of February 18 dawned upon a scene of sad devastation. The capital of South Carolina lay in smoking ruins. 412. Sherman Marches From the State. Sherman took up his march again after burning Columbia. He went toward North Carolina through Winnsboro, Camden and Cheraw, leav- ing behind him a country utterly ruined by the wanton destruc- tion of his soldiers. From Cheraw he went into North Carolina. Those parts of South Carolina crossed by Sherman's army suf- fered almost as terribly as Belgium did from the Germans in the "World War. 413. Confederates Leave Richmond. At daybreak of April 2, 1865, General Grant ordered a general attack on the lines of Petersburg. Before night the battle was over and the Con- federates had lost 12,000 prisoners. On the same day Lee ordered the Confederates to march out of Richmond as they could no longer hold it. Indescribable confusion followed. Nine ships in the river were burned so they would not fall into the hands of flie Unionists. Tobacco and cotton warehouses were set on fire. All the citizens who could do so left Richmond. On the next day the Unionists took possession of the capital of the Confederacy. 414. Surrender at Appomattox. Lee tried to escape with his army, but he was handicapped by the fact that his men were starving. He had to stop to gather food and was caught as he was crossing the Appomattox River on April 8. Here his army fought a last desperate battle. Lee had less than 35,000 ragged, weary and starved men against 100,000 well fed, well HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 209 equipped and fresh soldiers. The Confederates fought fiercely but when reinforcements came up for the enemy Lee had to raise the white flag in token of surrender. The war between the United States and the Confederate States was ended by Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. CHAPTER XXIX SOUTH CAROLINA UNDER RADICAL GOVERNMENT 415. The State in Ruins. None of the Confederate states paid so dearly for the war, in proportion to its means, as did South Carolina. Out of 146,000 white men its loss in killed and disabled was 40,000. South Carolina had in 1860 only 40,000 white voters. The war was costly to South Carolina not only in the lives of its men but also in its property. Its people lost $200,000,000 worth of slaves when the negroes were freed. The assets of its banks, all of which were lost, amounted to $5,000,000. The burning and seizure of cotton meant a loss of $20,000,000. It is estimated that of the $400,000,000 of prop- erty in South Carolina in 1861 little more than $50,000,000 re- mained in 1865. Hence the property lost by the State and its people during the war reached the staggering sum of $350,000,000. 416. Towns and Country Suffer. Charleston had been be- sieged from 1861 to 1865. Large parts of the city were in ruins from the constant shelling. Also portions of the city had taken fire when deserted at the approach of Sherman. In Columbia eighty-six squares of the city had been burned, consuming in all 1,386 buildings. The destruction of Columbia had caused great loss to the entire State, as, thinking that Columbia would be strongly defended, thousands of citizens from various parts of the State had hurried there and brought with them their valuables, which suffered from either theft or fire. With Sher- man's march through the rural parts of the State, the country had been left like a desert. The district around Beaufort had been held by the enemy since 1862, and had consequently suf- fered from wanton destruction. 417. Soldiers Return to Their Homes. Several days after Lee's surrender rumors reached the Confederate soldiers in 210 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 211 North Carolina of the downfall of the Confederacy. Shortly afterwards they returned to their homes. One poor Confederate remarked dolefully to a Northerner, "We wore ourselves out whipping you." They were truly worn out. When the South Carolinians reached their homes, ragged and in starving condition, it was to find their houses in ruins, their larders empty and their crops de- stroyed. General Gillmore, with his headquarters at Hilton Head, was in com- mand of the State. Governor Andrew G. Magrath had been imprisoned by the Yankees and was held in Savannah. All officers elected by the people had been thrown out of office. 418. President Lincoln's Plan. It was President Lincoln's idea that the Confederate states should be restored to the Union under terms he fixed. The Southern states were to declare the negro slaves free, lay down their arms and accept provisional governors. The president ofi^ered pardon to all except men who had been leaders during the war. Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865. Andrew Johnson, vice-president of the United States, became president. Johnson set himself to carrying out the plan of Lincoln. On May 29, 1865, President Johnson issued a proclamation granting pardon to the Confederates. Pardon, however, was denied to thirteen classes of men, among whom were all who had held rank above colonel in the Confederate army, all officers who had received their education at West Point or at the United States Naval Academy, all who had left seats in Congress to aid their states in the war, and all who had voluntarily fought in the war whose taxable property was over All that Sherman left of "Millwood," General Hampton's Home. 212 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA $20,000. Meetings were held in South Carolina at which resolu- tions were adopted expressing a desire for a place in the Union and for the re-establishment of the State government. Commit- tees were sent to Washington to ask that a provisional governor be appointed. President Johnson chose Benjamin F. Perry of Greenville to be provisional governor. 419. State's Government Rebuilt. Freedom of the negroes became a fact by June, 1865. "What was called the "Freedmen's Bureau" was established by order of General Gillmore for the protection of the rights of the freed negro slaves. Governor Perry directed county and state officers to resume their duties and called for an election of delegates to a Convention to carry out the terms of President Johnson's proclamation for restora- tion into the Union. Pardons were granted in large numbers so that delegates would be eligible to the Convention which met in Columbia in September, 1865. This Convention prohibited the holding of slaves and called a session of the legislature. The elections were held, and James L. Orr chosen governor. In November the regular session of the legislature was held. The important work of this body consisted of making laws to establish relations between the negro and the white man. By these acts the negro was to have the right to own property, to make contracts, and to receive protection under the law. Vari- ous acts granting rights were passed and then very severe laws were enacted for the protection of the white man against the negro. These laws, called the "Black Code," caused indignation in the North. 420. South Carolina's Position. South Carolina intended to accept quietly the results of the war, but had no intention of submitting to negro rule. The State was willing to give the negro equal protection under the law, but was decidedly unwill- ing to allow him to vote and sit on juries. The negroes were in such large majority that giving the vote to them was not to be considered. The State had a tremendous problem to face in the sudden freeing of thousands of irresponsible, uneducated, un- HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 213 moral, and, in many cases, brutish Africans. The people of South Carolina felt that they were a danger and that harsh laws were necessary to hold them in bounds. Connecticut re- fused in 1865 to allow the negroes of that state the right to vote. The South did not think that the North would force it to give the ballot to the freed slaves. 421. Negro Troops Cause Excitement. As was to be ex- pected the months since the defeat of the Confederates had been very difficult ones for South Carolinians. At first Federal garrisons in the State had been made up of white soldiers. Soon, however, negro troops came. These troops were for the most part insolent and arrogant. In some cases their conduct was so bad that riots seemed certain. The presence of negro soldiers in authority so excited the freed slaves that they lost their heads. There occurred terrible cases of assault and murder. The negro troops became finally so obnoxious that there was a general feeling of relief when toward the end of 1865 they were removed to the coast. Their removal undoubtedly prevented bloody race riots. 422. Congress Spoils President's Plans. The Southern states had apparently re-entered the Union by the time Congress met in December, 1865. They only lacked members of that body. Congress quickly showed that it had no intention of per- mitting the South to stay in the Union under the plans of Lincoln and Johnson. Congress was determined to teach the South a lesson for its "rebellion." Its policy soon proved that it looked upon the war as one fought by the North, not to save the Union, but to conquer the South. This mean-spirited Congress severely criticized President Johnson and declared that what he had done to restore the South to the Union should not go into effect. Congress refused to allow members elected by Southern states to take their seats. A committee was ap- pointed by Congress to investigate the true condition of affairs in the "rebel" states. This committee, instead of going to the "rebel" states to investigate, held meetings in Washington. 214 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA The investigations were made through officers of the Freedmen's Bureau. In June, the committee reported to Congress that the bitterness and defiance of the Southern states towards the Union were unequalled in the history of the world, and that in its opinion the burden rested with these states to show that they had a claim to be reinstated in the Union. Congress then offered to the South for ratification, as a condition to entering the Union, the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. This amendment gave the negroes the right to vote and sit on juries. The Southern states, with the exception of Tennessee, refused to ratify it. 423. South Under Military Law. The report of its com- mittee and the refusal of the Southern states to ratify the four- teenth amendment led Congress to pass an act dividing the Southern states into five military districts, with an officer of the Federal army in charge of each. The act said that it was "necessary that peace and good order should be enforced in said states until loyal and republican state governments can be legally established." President Johnson vetoed the act. Congress immediately passed it over his veto and it became a law. 424. Reconstruction Laws. The reconstruction laws made by Congress declared that before a person could be a voter he must swear that he had never held a public office and afterwards engaged in "insurrection or rebellion against the United States." The laws required that the Southern states should remain under military control until republican state constitu- tions were adopted and the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified. The enforcement of this amendment would mean that negroes would have the full right of suffrage and that they would be entitled to sit on juries. The intention of Congress in passing the fourteenth amendment was not to secure rights for the negroes but to humble the proud South to the dust. 425. Officers Removed. In Mareli, 1867, Major General Daniel Sickles of the United States Army, under the provisions HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 215 of the Reconstruction Acts, took command of the second military- district, made up of North and South Carolina. South Carolina was divided into eleven military divisions, each under the com- mand of an officer of the United States Army. In April, General Sickles issued what was called order No. 10, by which negroes were made eligible as jurors. Judge A. P. Aldrich, in holding court in Edgefield, refused to obey this order and was promptly removed from office. Gradually county officials were removed and replaced by military appointees. In Charleston the city officials were one by one thrown out and replaced by Northerners and negroes. The State was being dealt with as a conquered province ruled by the soldiers of a foreign power. 426. Coming of the "Carpet Baggers." South Carolina was overrun with Northern and foreign adventurers, negroes, alleged preachers and missionaries, who came to the conquered province for the "pickings" to be found. So meager were their possessions that it was said that they brought all their belong- ings in a carpet bag, and were therefore known to the people of the State as "carpet baggers." They swooped down upon South Carolina like hungry hawks and under the protection of the military authorities took the offices of the State and enriched themselves by fraud and robbery. With these adventurers some corruptible white South Carolinians joined hands. Such men were called "renegades" or "scalawags." The "carpet- baggers" and the "renegades" made common cause in setting the negro up in power with the purpose, not of benefiting the ignorant negro, but of filling their own pockets. 427. The Republican Convention. A general registration of voters was called for by order of General Sickles. The regis- tration showed 78,982 negroes and only 46,346 whites eligible to vote. So many white South Carolinians were debarred from voting in Beaufort, as a glaring instance, that the registration showed 2,500 negroes allowed the ballot and only 65 whites. An election was held to vote for or against the holding of a State convention as was directed by the Reconstruction Acts. Of 216 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA course, the majority was for the Convention, which met in Charleston in January, 1868. It is said that never in a civil- ized country was there any equal to this body of law-makers. It was composed of (1) native whites, many of whom were of ill repute ("scalawags" or "renegades") ; (2) Union of- ficers; (3) former slaves; and (4) Northern and foreign ad- venturers ("carpet baggers"). Of the 124 delegates 44 were not natives of the state. Of these foreigners some came from Denmark, Ireland, Dutch Guinea, and other countries. There were few white men of good repute in the State who liad not fought for the Con- federacy and in denying a great portion of these the ballot the real intelligence, virtue and wealth of South Carolina was excluded from the Convention. 428. Convention's Constitution Approved by Congress. The Convention, after long and heated arguments as to the pay of its members, drew up a Constitution, by which the right to vote was given every male citizen of 21 years, or over, not de- barred by the Reconstruction Acts of Congress. It was not made necessary to own property or to have an education in order to vote. Slavery was prohibited and extensive and costly provi- sion was made for the education of the negro children. The schools for whites were opened to negro children. A Conven- tion of Democrats was held in Columbia at which a protest was made to Congress against this radical Republican Constitution. This Convention declared that the Constitution excluded the best men of the state from voting, that it forced white children Monument to the Women of the confedeitacy euected by the People of the State at Columbia. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 217 to go to school with negroes, placed a system of education on the broken state which it could not support, and allowed the ignorant to rule the intelligent. The Convention of Democrats also declared that South Carolinians would not submit to negro rule. An election was held for the ratification of the Republican Constitution. A majority of voters having voted for it, Congress was notified. Despite the protest from the Democratic Conven- tion, Congress approved the Constitution. 429. Radical Supremacy. The stamp of Federal approval having been given to the Constitution made by the Republican Convention, there followed an election of a Radical or Republi- can legislature under ^t. The Democrats only succeeded in choosing twenty members of the body. This Republican legisla- ture met in July, 1868. Its first act was to ratify the fourteenth, amendment, the twenty Democrats voting against the ratification. Upon this action of the legislature. Congress readmitted South Carolina to the Union. The State had been restored to the Union by the vote of the negroes, "carpet-baggers," and "renegades." Governor Orr was removed and General Robert K. Scott of Ohio took his place. The Federal military officers turned the control of the State over to Scott. Passing from under military rule which for a little more than a year had been enforced at the point of the bayonet, South Carolina started upon its dark period. 430. Radical Legislature of South Carolina. The legis- lature elected for the sessions of 1868, 1869 and the first half of 1870 was composed of seventy-eight negroes and forty-six whites. The taxes paid by all the legislators amounted to $635.23. The body consisted principally of "carpet-baggers," "renegades" and negroes. Some members could only write their names in a mechanical fashion. Never as a whole was such gross ignorance displayed in a legislative body. The results of such an in- competent legislature were exactly what was foreseen. At the end of its session in 1870 the state debt had increased from $5,407,306.27 to $14,833,349.17. At the close of the year 1870, 218 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA all counties were in debt except Anderson and Fairfield. The average annual tax for some years before the war had been less than $550,000. In 1869, the taxes amounted to $1,764,357.41. The public school system was grossly inefficient. The selling of votes was common. In the legislature bribery and graft were rife. As the election of 1870 approached, a negro militia was raised and guns issued to them so that they could help the Republicans carry the election. This militia was very useful in the campaign. Governor Scott was re-elected. 431. Two More Years of Radical Rule. The taste of the second radical legislature was more luxurious than that of the first. For the session of 1870-1871, tl;e expenses were $679,- 071.83. In the journals of the body we find bills for chandeliers, ranging from $1,500 to $2,500 apiece; window curtains, $500 to $1,500 ; sofas, $150 to $175 ; Gothic chairs, $70 to $90. Bonds of the State were issued to cover the cost of such expenditures as these and to perpetrate frauds on a still larger scale. Money from the sale of bonds went into the pockets of the members of the legislature and its hangers-on. The insane asylum was kept open with money given by citizens after the radicals had stolen the money which should have been used for the care of patients in the asylum. The legislature did not provide any money to support the elaborate school system which it had created. The state debt amounted to $22,371,306 in October, 1871 — over four times as much as when the radicals took over the government. 432. Taxpayers Protest. The increase in the state debt so aroused the taxpayers that they called a convention, which rec- ommended to the people of the State resisting of the payment of the fraudulent bonds. Also an appeal was made to the legis- lature for the passage of an election law by which the 60,000 tax- paying voters would have some representatives in the legislature with the 90,000 voters who paid no taxes. This appeal had no effect. 433. Attempt to Enforce Negro Equality. Early in his first term, Governor Scott started the custom of giving official HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 219 receptions at his mansion, to which blacks and whites of both sexes were invited. Negroes were put on the board of trustees of the South Carolina University, and a new board was created for the insane asylum, which adopted the policy of non-separa- tion of the races at the institution. CHAPTER XXX OVERTHROW OF RADICAL GOVERNMENT 434. The Ku-Klux Klan. Secret organizations of white men were formed in nearly all the conquered states of the South. The men in these organizations were determined to hold the freed slaves in check and to fight the evil-doing radicals. These secret organizations were called the Ku-Klux Klan. In South Carolina, the military officers had given way to Scott and his government, but the Federal soldiers were held in the State to enforce the will of the radicals. The Ku-Klux Klan secretly decided to oppose the radicals as well as to protect the women and children of the State. The Ku-Klux met only at night. They were always mounted on horses and wore caps and masks to conceal their faces and long white coats which covered them and fell down over their horses. The sight of these ghostly riders galloping by in the night was a very terrifying one to the superstitious negro. A visit from the Ku-Klux was sufficient in most cases to turn him away from his evil doing. 435. The Ku-Klux at Work. In South Carolina, the Ku- Klux Klan was quiet until the latter part of 1870. It would have remained inactive but for the arming of the negroes and the conduct of the negro state militia. The militiamen became more and more intolerable in their bearing. House burning was more frequent and indignities of all kinds were inflicted upon the whites. After the October elections, the conduct of these armed negroes grew worse and worse. Women were insulted on the streets. The negroes in the town of Union first called down upon themselves the punishment of the Klan. In January, 1871, an ex-Confederate soldier named Stevens was driving a wagon containing barrels of whisky and was stopped on the public road by a company of negro militia who demanded the whiskey. 220 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 221 Upon his refusal, he was seized, beaten and finally shot to death. The whites were naturally alarmed at this open assassination. The Ku-Klux immediately proceeded to disarm the negro militia. The thirteen members of the company who had murdered Stevens were lodged in jail at Union. The attitude of the negroes in Union became so threatening and so openly sym- pathetic with the murderers that the Ku-Klux went to the jail ^ The State Hoise at (Julimbia. at night, seized two of the negroes and shot them. A month later an order came to remove the prisoners to Columbia and the Ku-Klux, feeling that it was simply a scheme to get the negroes away, visited the jail again. The remainder of the negroes were taken from the jail and shot to death. 436. United States Punishes Ku-Klux. The radical gov- ernment became concerned over the activity of the Ku-Klux in the counties where the negro militia was troublesome. Governor Scott offered to co-operate with the whites in restoring order, and all the militia companies in the disturbed counties were finally 222 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA disbanded. After the Ku-Klux raids had ceased for some months, which they did as soon as the negroes became quiet, Congress started an investigation. Nine counties of South Caro- lina were declared in a state of rebellion, and United States troops were sent to occupy them. These counties suffered in some instances more from the tyranny of the Federal officers than from the brutishness of the negro militia. Without proof in most cases, and always without warrant, citizens were thrown into jail, often on the accusations of negroes that they had been active as Ku-Klux. In one of the rebellious counties — York — there were 195 citizens confined in jail. In Union there were about two hundred arrests and several hundred in Spartanburg. Some citizens were carried to Columbia for trial. These trials were farces. All the accused white men were declared guilty and fined. All were given terms of imprisonment ranging from three months to five years. 437. "The Robber Governor." In 1872 Franklin J. Moses, Jr., of Sumter, became radical governor of South Carolina. By this time the State was prostrate. Negroes were in full control of the government. The majority in the legislature was utterly corrupt. Seats in Congress were openly bought. The rotten- ness and dishonesty of the negro government was plain to every- one. No white man felt that his life or property was safe. President Grant, who had succeeded Johnson, was sympathetic toward the negro government. Federal troops were always at its disposal. The courts of the State were corrupted, the juries packed and perjury common. With the election of Moses, the state government started a perfect orgy of stealing. Moses was the worst of the radical governors. He began his administration as a poor man and in two years had enriched himself by the numerous frauds in which the government engaged. The ex- travagance of the administration was unsurpassed. For in- stance, "a room in the State House was fitted up wherein to serve wines, liquors, eatables, and cigars. Liquors and cigars were sent to the houses of members and their friends and also HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 223 to the committee rooms. There were various bills for furnishing eatables, wines, liquors, and cigars to different legislative com- mittees — one dealer testifying that he presented a single bill for $1,800 and received therefor a pay certificate." 438. Assembling of Taxpayers. In February, 1874, the taxpayers of the State assembled again in Columbia. A protest was made against the frauds of the government — which frauds were being paid for by the taxpayers who had no voice in the government. Another appeal was made to Congress. A careful statement of the unlawful expenditures of the legislature was made and an account was given of the frauds and plundering. It was stated that prominent members of the legislature had openly avowed that the taxes w^ould be raised so high that lands would have to be sold at public auction because the owners could not pay taxes. A committee of prominent South Carolinians was sent to Washington to lay this appeal before President Grant. The president received these gentlemen with unpardon- able rudeness, and Congress, with its usual hostility, afforded no relief. A minority of congressmen, however, protested against the action of Congress. This minority begged Congress at least to send a committee to investigate conditions in South Carolina. The minority declared "the cry of that outraged, helpless and suffering people has reached our hearts as well as our under- standing. That once prosperous and beautiful State is on the verge of ruin. A horde of thieves and robbers, worse than any that ever infested any civilized community on earth, have her by \he throat and are fast sucking her life-blood. Three hundred thousand of her citizens, descendants of those who fought and won with our fathers the battles of American liberty, are crying to Congress for redress — for help. To refuse their request is to drive them to despair and ruin. ' ' 439. Chamberlain Made Governor. In 1874 Daniel H. Chamberlain was elected to succeed Moses as governor. His administration was the best of the radical governors. He openly accused the legislature of corruption and called for the 224 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA betterment of conditions in the penitentiary and asylum. He warned the counties against further deficiences in their treasuries, and started an investigation into the condition of the state treasury. In December, 1875, the legislature chose Frank- lin J. Moses, Jr., former governor, and W. J. Whipper, a Northern negro of bad repute, as circuit judges. The election of these two men was condemned throughout the State. All over the State public meetings were held denouncing the legislature and declaring that seating of the infamous men on the bench would be resisted to the end. Governor Chamberlain refused to sign the commissions of Whipper and Moses. For this the governor was commended by the Democrats of the State. It looked as if, in the coming election of 1876, he would have the support of the Democrats for re-election to the gubernatorial chair. 440. The Democrats Organize. In January, 1876, the cen- tral committee of the Democratic party met in Columbia and issued an address to the Democrats of the State. The address called for organization of the Democrats for the campaign of 1876, and begged that they apply themselves to politics and save the state from the Radicals. A Democratic club was organized in each county. Among the Democrats there were two distinct views about the Democratic nominee for governor. Some thouglit that the organization should support Chamberlain, as with him at the head of the ticket there would be a better chance of electing Democrats to the other offices. Others thought that the nominations should be for straight-out Democrats from governor to coroners. Notwithstanding this division of opinion concern- ing the nominee there was general agreement to deliver the State at any cost from the control of the negroes and Radicals. 441. The Hamburg Riot. In July, 1876, an incident occurred which settled the question of the Democratic nominee for governor. The village of Hamburg in Aiken County had had for several years a company of negro militia, who were well pro- vided with arms and ammunition. On riding through the streets HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 225 of Hamburg one day in July, two citizens of Edgefield were insulted by these negro soldiers. When a warrant was taken out for their arrest, the negroes threatened to lynch the citizens whom they had insulted. On the day fixed for the trial, the whites, with General Matthew C. Butler of Edgefield as spokes- man, asked the negroes to apologize for their conduct and dis- arm. The negroes refused and began firing. They fortified themselves in a small brick drill hall and before any of their number was hurt, young McKie Meriwether, a citizen of Edge- field, was killed. A small cannon was brought from Augusta. The negroes were forced from the building, one of their number being killed. The rest were captured and that night five of them were shot to death as an example to the remainder. This sum- mary proceeding was the result, in General Butler's language, of the practice "of insulting and outraging white people, which the negroes had adopted there for several years." Upon the statement of the negroes of the district, Governor Chamberlain formed his judgment of the Hamburg riot. He appealed to the president for troops. This action decided the Democrats not to support him for re-election. 442. Democrats at Work. In August, at the Democratic Conven- tion, General Matthew C. Bulter nominated General Wade Hampton for governor. General Hampton was then unanimously chosen by the Convention, We have told of this great soldier's deeds during the War Between the Sections. The Democrats all over the State went to work for General Wade Hampton, Hampton. Every white man enrolled '"^.L.^.ferlho^r^if t'L n^n!!!: for the election and great efforts were ''"ts in istg when control ^ n n 1 "*^ the State was won from made to enroll all the negro men Avho the Radicals. J 1 f ' i^B ^^' m || 226 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA had been loyal to the whites into clubs officered by negro men. It was announced that any oppression of these negro Democrats by the Republicans would surely lead to bloodshed. Knowing that the Republicans would stoop to anything to gain the election, the Democratic clubs provided themselves with arms. Some military organizations were formed, called rifle and sabre clubs. The white people, with the state government hostile, were forced to look to these clubs for protection. 443. The Hampton Campaign. The campaign to elect Hampton opened on September 2nd at Anderson. There fol- lowed enthusiastic meetings in each county. The women of the State made for the men of their families red shirts, which were worn at these meetings. The clubs came to the meetings in military order, each man mounted and wearing a red shirt. General Hampton was escorted to flower-decked stands by red- shirted committeemen, while young women sang songs and scattered flowers in his path. Every good man, woman, and child felt that in Hampton was the deliverance of the State. As election day approached, the Democrats became more and more active. Getting Hampton elected was the business of the worthy citizens of South Carolina. Farms were left untended, stores were closed, and every Democrat went to work for the re- demption of the State. Each one set himself the task of winning as many negro votes for Hampton as possible. Even the children took up the slogan "Hurrah for Hampton" and this call became the "battle cry of the white people of South Carolina in the fight to rid the State of negro rule. ' ' 444. Rioting. A white man was killed and five wounded in Charleston in protecting some negro Democrats from a party of Republicans, who were trying to break up the meeting. Again the negroes tried to interfere at the joint Democratic and Re- publican meeting at Cainhoy in Charleston County. The negroes began firing and six white men were killed and sixteen wounded. Only one negro was killed. At Ellenton in Barnwell County the most serious riot occurred. Two negro burglars HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 227 entered a home in the owner's absence and, when the owner's wife resisted, beat her and her little son severely. One of the negroes was caught, confessed and told who the other negro was. A constable with a posse began a search for the negro, whereupon the negroes of the district massed in a swamp. Matters went from bad to worse, and in three days two whites were killed and eight wounded. The number of negroes killed is not known, but it is estimated that between 80 and 125 lost their lives. After the appearance of a company of United States troops, it was agreed that the whites and the negroes were to disperse. 445. Federal Troops Again in the State. Governor Cham- berlain himself admitted that the responsibility for the riots was upon the Republicans, but, despite this, he ordered the disband- ing of the rifle and sabre clubs formed among the Democrats. It must be remembered that these clubs were the only protection of the white people. President Grant laid the responsibility of the riots upon the clubs and also ordered them broken up. He further ordered the available force (which was about 5,000 men) of the military division to report to Columbia. A company or more of these United States troops were placed at each county seat. In Barnwell and Aiken alone there were upwards of two hundred arrests of Democrats made by the Federal authorities. Only a few of these Democrats ever came to trial and those tried were not convicted. 446. Hampton Elected. There was no blood shed on elec- tion da3\ The polls were in control of the Republican party. The troops remained inactive in their camps. The Democrats worked unceasingly all day, chiefly concerning themselves with getting the negro men to vote for Hampton, and with seeing that they were not harmed for doing so. Conditions in the State were so frightful that the Democrats were determined to get the gov- ernment back into their hands by any means. It must be con- fessed that in many cases the means used could be justified only by the ends sought. The count of the ballots showed Hampton 228 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA elected governor. The elections for the House of Representatives returned sixty-four Democrats and sixty Republicans ; for the Senate, fifteen Democrats and eighteen Republicans, thus giving the Democrats a majority of one vote on joint ballot. The news arrived shortly after that Rutherford B. Hayes had been elected president of the United States to succeed U. S. Grant. There was great rejoicing among the Democrats over the outcome of the state election. The Republicans declared that the Democrats had won by fraud. 447. The Two Governments. The Republicans asserted that there had been frauds in the Edgefield and Laurens elec- tions. The object of this was to throw out these counties, which would give the majority in the House and Senate to the Republicans. Governor Chamberlain de- clared that he had been re-elected. The General Assembly convened on November 28, 1876. At Governor Chamberlain's re- quest President Grant ordered troops sent for use in the State House. These troops were placed under the command of John B. Dennis, a corrupt man, who had been connected with some of the most brazen frauds in the State. A list of members who should be allowed to enter was given Dennis — this list excluding the Edgefield and Laurens delegates. The sixty-four Democratic delegates marched in a body to the House, the Edgefield mem- bers leading and the Laurens members coming next. These were refused admission. Whereupon, the entire body of Demo- crats retired. There was naturally great excitement among the people. From the steps of the State House General Hampton begged the crowd to keep quiet and to preserve the peace. The Democratic members proceeded to Carolina Hall, where they organized. William H. Wallace of Union was made speaker, and the body of Democratic legislators was known as the "Wallace House." General William H. Wallace, Speaker of the Wallace House. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 229 448. Court Decides for Democrats. The Wallace House on November 30 marched boldly into the State House. The Re- publicans had organized with E. W. M. Mackey as speaker. This body was known as the "Mackey House." For several days the two houses remained seated day and night, both claim- ing rightful possession. On Sunday night, December 3, the Democrats learned that a plot was on foot to bring what was known as the "Hunkidori Club," composed of about a hundred negroes and low whites, into the hall of the House and eject the Democratic members from Laurens and Edgefield. Telegrams were sent all over the State, and by Monday night, 5,000 Demo- crats had arrived in Columbia. To prevent bloodshed, the Wallace House withdrew from the State House. Proceedings were started in the Supreme Court to decide which was the law- ful House. The court declared for the Democrats. Despite this decision, the Republicans held on. They had an inauguration and proclaimed Chamberlain governor. 449. The State Redeemed. In the spring of 1877, the con- test was transferred to Washington. Committees from the Chamberlain party and from the lawful Democratic House pre- sented a memorial to President Hayes and to Congress. Presi- dent Hayes declared Hampton governor and the Democratic House lawfully elected. The Federal troops were removed from the State House on April 10, 1877, and the Wallace House took possession. Governor Hampton was inaugurated governor. After eight years of negro and Radical supremacy, backed by Federal troops. South Carolina had overthrown the usurpers and taken possession of the government. CHAPTER XXXI INDUSTRIAL CHANGES 450, Conditions After Reconstruction. After ten years of the evil Radical government South Carolina was a badly crippled state. No other Southern state suffered as much from war and reconstruction as did South Carolina. With a voting population of 40,000 South Carolina had furnished 75,000 fight- ing men to the Confederacy, which meant that great numbers of boys under age fought in the war. Many of these soldiers were disabled from wounds and unfit for labor in the fields. As South Carolina was almost solely an agricultural state, there was little for men to do besides work on farms. The freeing of the slaves was a heavy financial loss as much of the wealth of the State was invested in slaves. Add to this the hardships of ten years of Radical government and the State was almost bank- rupt. The money from the county treasuries had been stolen, the state government was deeply in debt, the school and college teachers had not been paid, and taxes were so high that there were few people able to pay them. These were the conditions South Carolinians had to face when they took the government from the hands of the "carpet baggers" and negroes. 451. How^ the Plantations Were Worked. An arrange- ment called "share cropping" was made with the freed slaves whereby crops could be planted. Under this arrangement the crops were made on shares, the white man furnishing the land, mules and sometimes fertilizer and the negro furnishing the labor. The old plantation life where one master cultivated huge tracts of land raising enormous crops with the aid of his slaves became a thing of the past. Small farms, worked by tenants, took the place of the great plantations. The majority of tenant "share croppers" were "one horse farmers" or "two horse 230 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 231 farmers. ' ' Many of the great plantations were cut up into small tracts and sold or rented. The old order had passed. No longer were there "lords of the land" who, following the example of their English ancestors, had made of South Carolina one of the most aristocratic sections of the United States. 452. Legislature Helps In Rebuilding State. The first legislature after Reconstruction w^ent at once to work and made some laws very helpful to the people. One of the most important of these was the "stock law." This required all pasture land to be fenced, except in a few sections of the State. Up to this time cattle had run at large everywhere and farmers had been forced to fence their fields. The fencing of large fields was very expensive and made the profits from the crops smaller. Thus the law requiring cattle raisers to keep their stock within fenced pastures was a great advantage to farmers. Next, the legisla- ture passed what was known as the "lien law." This law enabled the farmers to get credit by giving a lien or mortgage on the crops they were raising. The lien law benefited the farmers greatly. They were practically bankrupt from the war and Reconstruction and had no money to live on while the crops were growing. The legislature secured money to keep up the schools and also ordered that convicts in the penitentiary be hired out to men or companies so as to be self-supporting. This legislature was notable for its constructive laws at a time when wise law-makers were most needed. 453. Prosperity. Hampton was elected for a second term as governor, but in 1879 he was elected to the United States Senate and resigned the office of governor. Lieutenant Governor W. D. Simpson succeeded him as governor but resigned to take the office of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina. Lieutenant Governor Thomas B. Jeter became governor for the unexpired term. During the four years following Reconstruction South Carolina had made remarkable progress. The expense of running the state government had been greatly reduced and consequently taxes were much lower. Railroads were built. 232 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA New towns were settled. The schools were improved. There were few citizens in South Carolina who were not earnestly working to bring conditions back to normal. Cotton Mill in the Up-Country. 454. Cotton Manufacturing. Cotton was still ''king" in South Carolina during this period and, in fact, cotton is "king" now, the planting of this great crop being our chief industry. But next to the planting of cotton and practically as important is our cotton manufacturing industry which began to develop like magic during the years after Reconstruction. Before the War Between the Sections there was a deep seated prejudice in this state against white people working in mills, even though South Carolina had been probably the first state in the United States to have a cotton mill. Most of the people of South Carolina, including great leaders like Calhoun, felt up to the time of the war that South Carolina should be entirely an agricultural state. Before the war, nearly all the cotton cloth made in the State was woven by negro slaves. After Reccmstruc- tion this prejudice against cotton mills began to die out and by 1885 the cotton mill industry was firmly rooted as the second great industry of the state. The Piedmont Manufacturing HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 233 Company at Piedmont was founded in 1873 by Colonel Henry Pinckney Hammett. The Pelzer Manufacturing Company at Pelzer was established in 1880 by Francis J. Pelzer, William Lebby and Captain Ellison A. Smyth. Numerous other mills were built until as the years passed tens of thousands of our white citizens were employed in manufacturing cotton goods. Most of the cotton mills of South Carolina are in the Up- Country where they get power from the swift streams. In some parts of the Up-Country one can scarcely go ten miles without seeing a cotton mill. South Carolina now ranks third in the United States in the manufacture of cotton goods. Within fifteen years after Reconstruction South Carolina was no longer known solely as an agricultural state ; for along with cotton growing cotton manufacturing had come to stay. 455- Other Manufacturing Industries. Manufacturing of other kinds besides cotton goods was started in South Carolina after Reconstruction. This period marked the beginning of the cotton seed crushing industry. In 1880 there was not a cotton oil mill in the State. Cotton seed were used as a fertilizer, or thrown away as waste. In 1882 three cotton seed oil mills were built, one in Charleston, one in Greenville and one in Chester. From this small beginning. South Carolina soon ranked as one of the foremost states of the Union in the cotton seed crushing industry'. The lumber industry and the naval stores industry took on new life after Reconstruction. Railroads were rapidly built into all sections of the State. The end of Reconstruction was the starting point for a wonderful development of manu- factures in South Carolina. During this period manufacturing was increasing in this State five times faster than in the United States as a whole. The war had completely changed the in- dustrial life of the State by first doing away with the old planta- tion life, which was dependent on the holding of slaves, and then taking a large portion of our people from the fields to the mills. 456. Mining in South Carolina. In 1880 General John- son Hagood whom we remember fighting gallantly in many battles 234 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Governor John C. Sheppaud. of the War Between the Sections was elected governor of South Carolina. He was followed in 1882 by Hugh S. Thompson, former State Superintendent of Education, who held the office for two terms. While some of our foremost citizens were bend- ing their efforts to develop manufactur- ing in this State there were at the same time many who began to realize the value of our mining resources which up to this time had scarcely been touched. The greatest development was in mining phosphate in the Low-Country. Fertil- izer was made from the phosphate rock and in a short time this grew to be one of the most valuable of the industries of the State. Moreover on every ton of phosphate mined from lands owned by South Carolina and from the beds of its rivers a royalty or tax was paid to the State. The growth of this industry was so rapid that, whereas in 1870 less than 2,000 tons were mined, in 1883 over 350,000 tons were mined. The royalty from phosphate mining alone was almost enough of itself to pay the expenses of the state government. The industry died out because it was found that phosphate rock could be mined more cheaply in Florida. 457- Quarries Developed, During this period of wonder- ful development in manufacturing and phospliate mining South Carolina began to develop her fine granite quarries. This State has many valuable quarries which furnish splendid material for buildings, monuments, paving blocks and crushed stone for road building. Limestone quarries were also developed and manj'' plants were established to mine kaolin, a clay from which china is made. These mining and quarrying operations also diverted many men from the farms. 458. Summary of the Period. The ten years of white gov« HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 235 ernment from Hampton's administration to Thompson's saw a complete change in the life of the State. The great plantations worked by slave labor gave way to numerous small farms worked either by the white people or in co-operation with the freed negroes. In the Up-Country cotton mills sprang up like mush- rooms increasing so rapidly in numbers and in size that South Carolina now ranks third in the Union in cotton manufacturing. Along with this wonderful development came that of the mines of South Carolina, the phosphate mining and granite quarries soon furnishing large sources of wealth to South Carolina. In no other ten years has there been a development of so momentous a nature as from 1876 to 1886. CHAPTER XXXII DISSATISFACTION WITH THE STATE GOVERNMENT 459. Political Unrest. Governor Hugh S. Thompson was succeeded by John Peter Richardson of Sumter. Governor Richardson was re-elected in 1888, thus holding the office from 1886 to 1890. The years of Governor Richardson's term were ones of great political unrest in South Carolina. The period immediately following Reconstruction was marked, as we have seen, by almost unparalleled progress. New towns, more rail- roads, new and greater manufacturing plants, new methods of farming had all contributed to rebuilding the State after the destruction caused by the War Between the Sections. A great factor in bringing about the unrest during Richardson's ad- ministration was the falling price of cotton — the chief crop of the State. From 1870 to 1880 cotton had sold for from sixteen to eighteen cents a pound. Then from 1880 the price of cotton began to fall. It first dropped to around ten cents a pound and then steadily declined until it hardly paid to plant it. As is always the case when cotton is low our people were discon- tented. They grumbled against the state government, accusing the officials and the legislature of extravagance and mismanage- ment. They began to say that no one was ever elected to office except rich men and professional men and that it was only right that the farmers and the laboring classes should have some share in the government. Demands were made for a new constitution, the constitution then in force having been written by the Radi- cals during Reconstruction. A great many people complained of the large sales of whiskey. A party grew up which demanded prohibition. 460. Farmers' Movement. This wholesale dissatisfaction 236 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 237 Governor Benjamin R. Tillman. grew into what became known as the "Farmers' Movement." In 1886 the Farmers' Association was formed and the first meeting was lield with Captain Benjamin R. Tillman of Trenton as its leader. The object of the association was to gain for the farmers more rights in the government. Its leaders declared that bankers and lawyers and old soldiers had held all the offices long enough and it was time for the farmers to have some of them. Curi- ous to say a large number of the mem- bers of the Farmers' Association were themselves professional men. The peo- ple behind the "Farmers' Movement" complained that the University of South Carolina was a place only for rich men 's sons. They demanded that the State provide a college for the sons of farmers. The "Farmers' Movement" steadily grew in numbers and in strength until it developed into the strongest party in the State. 461. The Farmers' College. Just at the time that the farmers were demanding a separate college for their sons, Thomas G. Clemson, a son-in-law of John C. Calhoun, made a gift to the State of "Fort Hill," Calhoun's plantation, for the purpose of establishing a college for boys. The gift was accepted and the legislature passed an act providing for the founding of an agricultural college for boys on the Calhoun property given by Clemson. The establishment of this college showed the strength of the "Farmers' Movement" which had demanded a farmers' college. The college was named for Clemson. 462. A School for Girls Urged. South Carolina had made no provision for educating the women of the State except through private or denominational schools. Governor Richardson urged that something be done now for the girls of the State as provision had been made for the boys through the University of South 238 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Carolina and the establishment of Clemson College, A training school for girls had been founded in Columbia with a private fund. Governor Richardson asked that this school be taken over by the State and enlarged into a college for women. Later the legislature appointed a commission to inquire into the founding of a state school for girls. Administration Building at Clemson College. 463. Tillman Becomes Governor. By 1890 the ''Farmers' Movement" had become so powerful that its leader, Benjamin R. Tillman, was elected governor of South Carolina. He held the office for two terms, at the end of which time he was elected to the United States Senate. There has never been a more hotly contested election in South Carolina than that of Tillman. People were either "Tillmanites" or "Anti-Tillmanites." In the election a candidate for any office had to declare whether he was for or against Tillman. There was so much feeling that riots were barely prevented. ' ' Pitchfork Ben ' ' became Tillman 's nickname. The State was torn into two factions over the election HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 239 and it was many years before the feeling died down. Governor Tillman declared in his inaugural address that he came as a re- former, that is to say that he meant to change conditions. He demanded the calling of a convention for the making of a new and better constitution. He advised that the department of agriculture and meclianics be moved from the University of South Carolina to Clemson College. He strongly urged the Administration Building, Wixthrop College. founding of a great industrial college for girls and advised an investigation of the phosphate industry, declaring that the valu- able phosphate lands were taxed only as farming lands. The legislature at once acted favorably upon Governor Tillman's suggestions. 464. The Prohibition Question. It was not until long after the Revolutionary AVar that a sentiment began to develop in this State against the selling of whiskey. The old plantation owners had made their own liquors and imported fine wines from foreign countries. They took great pride in the contents of their wine cellars. For an honored guest the rarest wines were brought forth. The slaves were given regular rations of 240 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA whiskey. Every town had its barroom or saloon where the men gathered. These barrooms grew in size and numbers until at the time of Governor Tillman's election as governor there were between seven and eight hundred of them in South Carolina. The people at last realized that a large part of the crime and much of the privation and suffering in the State was due to the drinking and selling of liquor. A strong sentiment for prohibi- tion developed after Reconstruction. The movement to stop the sale of whiskey grew to such proportions that in 1892 an election was held to find out just how the people as a whole stood upon the matter. Strange to say few came out to vote. It was found that of those who had voted the majority were for prohibition. This was, however, less than half of the voters of the State. 465. Dispensary Established. Governor Tillman now said that instead of passing a prohibition law the legislature might better carry out the will of the people by establishing a State Dispensary to control the sale of liquor. Governor Tillman's plan was to locate a central dispensary at Columbia and a local dispensary at each county seat. The local dispensaries were to be supplied by the central dispensary. All of the sale of whiskey would thus be turned over to the State. Governor Till- man's plan was adopted by the General Assembly and the State Dispensary was established. 466. The "Darlington War." The establishment of the State Dispensary unfortunately did not settle the liquor trouble. The law creating the Dispensary provided for appointment of constables. The duty of the constables was to stop any illegal sale of liquor. The constables were armed and given the right to search without a warrant private houses where they suspected liquor to be hidden for unlawful sale. All sales of liquor not made through the Dispensary were illegal. There was great opposition to the constables who at times abused their authority to search without warrant. This resulted in violence in various parts of the State. The most serious trouble occurred in Darling- ton in 1894. This was known as the "Darlington War." Two HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 241 citizens were killed and two wounded. The search without warrant law was finally changed, but other and greater troubles of which we shall hear later grew out of the State Dispensary system. The prohibition movement steadily developed. 467. The Storm of 1893. In 1893 a storm raged over the whole State, inflicting immense damage. The greatest loss and suffering were on the coast. A thousand lives were lost. Crops were ruined and houses blown down. Governor Tillman recom- mended to the legislature that help be given the storm-swept region. 468. Growing Unrest. The price of cotton continued low and the people began to feel the pinch resulting from getting so little money from their chief crop. The price had declined so since 1880 that the farmers felt that it was scarcely worth while to plant. As a result business was bad in all lines and grumbling was heard on all sides. This discontent crystallized into a pressing demand for a new state Constitution. The Constitution under which they were living was that formed in 1868 by the Radicals and had natu- rally many bad features. A new Consti- tution became the most talked of topic of the day. At this time Governor Tillman was sent to the United States Senate and John Gary Evans of Edgefield was elected governor of the State in 1894. 469. Constitution of 1895. In 1894 the demand for a new Constitution had grown to such proportions that the legislature called for an election of delegates to form a Convention for the purpose of making a new Constitution. The Convention was held in Columbia in 1895. The most important question before the Convention was framing new election laws. This was neces- sary so as to give the white people protection against an over- GovBKNOK John Gauy Evans. 242 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA whelming and illiterate majority of negroes in the State. The Constitution was at length agreed upon and was called the Constitution of 1895. This Constitution is the one under which we live today. CHAPTER XXXIII SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 470. Effect of War Upon Education in South Carolina. The schools and colleges in South Carolina had almost all closed during the War Between the Sections. The last call for soldiers in 1865 took into the field every white male aged from sixteen to sixty. There were no youths left for the colleges. Some of the school buildings were used for hospitals. Some were turned into homes for refugees from those parts of the State which had been ruined by the Union armies. Some were destroyed by the enemy. 471. New Start After the War. The educational institu- tions reopened after the war ended. The South Carolina College was reorganized as a university. Private colleges began to repair their buildings and receive students. Everyone was eager to make up as far as possible for the time lost during the four years of war. 472. Effect of Reconstruction Upon Education. These brave efforts to start the schools again after the war were ended by Reconstruction. As we have seen, South Carolina was put under military rule and treated like a conquered province. The Radicals and the negroes took charge of the government. The new Constitution they made provided for a system of public schools with a State Superintendent of Education. Under him were officers in each county to manage the schools. This system Avas splendid in theory, but the Radical government was so dis- honest that the school system proved a failure. "We have studied about the way in which the schools were mismanaged, the money for their support stolen and the teachers left unpaid. 473. The Present Public School System. When Hamp- ton was elected governor in 1876 and South Carolina freed from 243 244 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA the Radicals, the people wanted to do away entirely with the Constitution made by the Radicals. But there were some in the State who felt that the public school system provided in the Constitution had been a failure because of the dishonesty of the Radicals and that the system itself was good. The school system Avas retained. The counties were divided into school districts managed by local boards of trustees. The state superintendent supervised all the schools of the state. The state superintendent Barracks Building on the New Site of The Citadel in Charleston. with the governor of the state and seven persons appointed by the governor form the State Board of Education. This board makes rules for the government of the schools. It examines teachers and gives them certificates to teach. It selects and adopts the textbooks to be used in the schools. Each county elects a County Superintendent of Education who directs the schools of that county under the supervision of the state superin- tendent. 474. Attendance. The children of the rich and poor alike go to our public schools, which have progressed wonderfully in HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 245 recent years. All children between the ages of eight and four- teen years are required by law to attend schools. South Caro- lina feels that educated people make the best citizens and the State is determined that every child within its borders shall have the advantage of the good education offered free in the public schools to each girl and boy in South Carolina. 475. The Negro Schools. The negroes in South Carolina have a school system like that of the white people although they pay only a very small proportion of the taxes. After the slaves were freed so few of them were able to teach that many educated white men and women taught in the negro schools for a time. There are negro schools in every county in the state. The lead- ing men of South Carolina since the War Between the Sections have urged that the negroes be given a common school educa- tion so as to make better citizens of them. The State partly sup- ports a State College at Orangeburg for the negroes. 476. The College of Charleston. The first college in South Carolina was the College of Charleston established in 1790. Its first trustees were among the most famous men in the State — General Moultrie, the hero of Fort Moultrie; Edward Rutledge and Arthur Middleton, the signers of the Declaration of Inde- pendence, and John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinekney and Charles Pinekney, signers of the Constitution of the United States. The College of Charleston was not a financial success at first. For a while a high school was substituted for it, but later the college was taken over by the city of Charles- ton. In 1851 Louis Agassiz, the great scientist, lectured in Charleston on natural sci- ence and greatly stimulated the life of the college. The college steadily prospered and while not a large one, ,, . ,, 11. -n • Mai\ I>l-ilui.\(;, College of tniS, the Oldest college in Charleston. 246 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA South Carolina, offers a scholarly classical course. Its dis- tinguished graduates have been prominent in many walks of life. 477. The University of South Carolina. In 1805 this in- stitution was opened as the South Carolina College at Columbia to be supported by the State. It prospered until the War Be- tween the Sections. Within its walls a company was formed for service in the war. In 1862 the doors were closed, for students and professors had gone to fight for the Confederacy. The buildings were then used as a hospital for sick and wounded soldiers. After the war the college opened under the rule of the Radicals. The students left and the professors resigned. The institution was then closed by the legislature. It was reopened in 1880. In 1906 this old institution was renamed the Uni- versity of South Carolina. It offers now literary degrees and degrees in law and engineering. The university is noted for the number of famous men who have been graduated from it. It^lias one of the best and largest libraries in the State. 478. The Citadel. The Military College of South Carolina was called the Citadel because the buildings were first used for storing arms owned by the state. The Citadel was opened as a military academy in 1842. Of the 240 graduates at the begin- ning of the War Between the Sections over 200 were officers in the Confederate army. At the close of the war the Citadel was seized by Union forces. The school was not reopened until 1882. This institution stands next to West Point in the thor- oughness of its military training. Its graduates are qualified for commissions in the United States army and many served with distinction during the World War. 479. Medical College of South Carolina. This college was organized in 1823 and is one of the oldest medical colleges in the United States. The course extends over four years. Con- nected with it is a college of pharmacy. 480. Clemson Agricultural and Mechanical College. Clemson College was established in 1889 by act of legislature and was the direct result of the demand of the farmers of South HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 247 Carolina for an educational institution at which agriculture would be taught. The gift of 1,130 acres of land was made to the State of South Carolina by Thomas G. Clemson, son-in-law of John C, Calhoun, for the purpose of founding an agricul- tural college for boys. The old home of Calhoun stands in the center of the campus on a beautiful knoll. Men are thoroughly prepared at Clemson for developing the resources of the State Main Building at Furman University. by courses in agriculture, in mechanics, in electrical and civil engineering and in textile manufacturing. 481. Winthrop Normal and Industrial College. In 1891 the General Assembly of South Carolina incorporated the "Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina." The college was located at Rock Hill and its doors opened in 1894. Winthrop has grown by leaps and bounds. This college offers thorough and efficient courses for the girls of the State. It ranks very high among the teacher training colleges of the United States. It has earned the praise of all classes of people regardless of politics or religion. There is no better school in the South for the training of young women for the noble pro- fession of teaching and for the practical duties of life. 482. The Baptist Colleges. The Baptist denomination has 248 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA The Rev. Dr. Eichard FUKMAN. Noted Baptist Minister for whom Furmau Univer- sity was named. excellent colleges in South Carolina. Furman University at Greenville, the Baptist institution for men, was opened in 1852. The college was named for the Rev. Richard Furman, a Patriot and preacher who did much to strengthen the Baptist denomination in this state. It is said that Lord Cornwallis re- marked during the Revolutionary War that he feared the prayers of this patriotic preacher "more than he did the soldiers of Sumter and Marion." The Greenville Woman's College was established by the Baptists in 1854 to educate young women and was located in Greenville. Limestone College at Gaffney and Anderson College at Anderson are two more Baptist colleges for women, the former founded in 1846 and the latter in 1911. 483. Coker College. This college for women at Hartsville was founded and heavily endowed by the late Major James L. Coker, one of the state's best citizens. Coker College was the outgrowth of the Welsh Neck Baptist High School at Harts- ville. The property owned by this school was given by Major Coker and other men of the Peedee section. In 1908 Coker College was founded and took the place of the high school. The trustees of Coker College are nominated by Baptist associations, but Major Coker, while a member of the Baptist church himself, wished the college to be strictly non-sectarian in its character and service. The endowment fund of Coker College is administered by its board of trustees, with the ex- ^^^^^ j^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^_ Ception of $150,000 which was given by Founder of Colcer College. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 249 Major Coker to the college and which is administered by a trust board composed of five men, two of whom are Baptists and three belong to other denominations. Major Coker 's liberality in pro- viding buildings and money gave Coker College a prominent place among the colleges for women in the South. The endow- ment and equipment of this school now amount to nearly one million dollars. Admi.nistkation Building at Woffoud College. 484, The Methodist Colleges. Wofford College at Spar- tanburg was chartered in 1851. This college was founded by the Rev. Benjamin Wofford, a Methodist minister who made a fortune and in his will left it to his denomination to build a college for men. Wofford College, due to the great sacrifices of the Methodists interested in it, did not close its doors during the War Between the Sections or during Reconstruction. Since those troubled times it has grown steadily and developed in use- fulness and service. Columbia College, a Methodist college for women, was founded in 1859. In 1904 the college was moved to new buildings in the suburbs of Columbia. Its buildings were almost ruined by fire a few years later, but were rebuilt and enlarged. Lander College at Greenwood, another Methodist col- 250 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA lege for women, was founded at AVilliamston in 1872 by the Rev. Samuel Lander and moved to Greenwood in 1904. 485. The Presbyterian Colleges. The Presbyterian Col- lege of South Carolina at Clinton grew out of the Clinton high school established during Reconstruction. The college was first known as Clinton College and in 1893 its name was changed to the Presbyterian College of South Carolina. The same year the Presbyterians organized Chicora College at Greenville. This college was moved to Columbia and combined with the College for Women. The Columbia Theological Seminary, one of the oldest educational institutions in the State, was opened in 1828 for educating men for the Presbyterian ministry. 486. The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Colleges. Erskine College at Due West was founded by the Associate Re- formed Presbyterian Church in 1836. This was the first de- nominational college opened in South Carolina and it has had a long and useful career. Due West Female College was founded by the Associate Reformed Presbyterians in 1860. 487. The Lutheran Colleges. The Lutheran synod estab- lished Newberry College at Newberry in 1858 for the education of its youth. The college closed from 1861 to 1865 while most of its professors and students fought for their State. The endowment fund of this college was lost by in- vestment in Confederate bonds. The Lutheran church has a theological seminary at Columbia where men are trained for the Lutheran ministry. Summerland College, near Leesvillc, is the Lutheran college for women. 488. Converse College. D. E. Converse, a wealthy cotton manufacturer of Spartanburg, founded Converse College in that city. This college for women was opened in 1889. It is non- HoLLAND Hall at Newberuy College. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 251 denominational and its high standards attract girls from many parts of the country. It is famous for the music festivals given each spring under its auspices. 489. Confederate Home College. Mrs. M. A. Snowden, a patriotic woman of Charleston, was instrumental in founding the Confederate Home College for Girls. The founder's object was to provide a home and school for the daughters of Con- federate soldiers. The college was opened in Charleston in 1867. 490. The Catholic Schools. The Catholic Church has pro- vided several schools for its youth in this state. Among these are St. Angela's Academy at Aiken, the Ursuline Academy at Columbia and the Sacred Heart Academy at Greenville. The Ursuline Academy is the oldest, having been opened in 1858. CHAPTER XXXIV WAR AND PROGRESS 491. The War With Spain. In 1896 Governor Evans was succeeded by W. H. Ellerbe of Marion, the great-great-grandson of Captain Thomas Ellerbe who fought with Marion's brigade during the Revolution. Governor Ellerbe was elected for a second term but died in office and was succeeded by the lieu- tenant-governor, Miles B. McSweeney of Hampton. In 1900 McSweeney was elected governor by the people. At the be- ginning of Governor Ellerbe 's term of office, South Carolina was aroused by affairs of national interest. The island of Cuba, under the dominion of Spain, had for many years been in revolt against the mother country. A large number of Americans were in business in Cuba and their affairs suffered greatly from the unsettled state of the island. Cuba was in a distressing condition. The farms had been destroyed and the people were starving. The tyranny and cruelty of Spain towards the Cubans aroused the indignation of all Americans. Spain was not able to subdue and govern the island. In February, 1898, the United States sent the battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American interests in the island. The Spaniards blew up the Maine in Havana harbor and 226 Americans were killed. The wrath of the United States was aroused by this cowardly act. On April 25, 1898, this country declared war against Spain. The presi- dent called for 125,000 volunteers. South Carolina gave its full quota of men. 492. South Carolina Troops, Upon the call for volunteers the Darlington Guards, the Sumter Light Infantry, the Edisto Rifles and the Manning Guards formed what was known as the Independent Battalion with Lieutenant Colonel Henry T. Thompson in command. This was the first organization in the 252 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 253 State to be mustered into service for war with Spain. A heavy battery was formed and sent to Sullivan's Island. The First Regiment under Colonel Joseph K. Alston of Columbia was organized and sent to a camp in Tennessee and then to Florida. The Second South Carolina Regiment was organized under Colonel Wilie Jones of Columbia. Colonel Alston died before the war was ended and Lieutenant Colonel James H. Tillman took command of the First Regiment. The only South Carolina regiment which reached Cuba was the Second Regiment under Colonel "Wilie Jones, which was sent first to Savannah and from there to Cuba on the transport Roumanian. As this regiment marched throvigh the streets of Havana it was cheered by the Cubans. The South Carolina Regiment camped about five miles from Havana and took no active part in any engagement. Colonel Jones, through his careful attention to camp sanitation and his kindly consideration of his men, lost only three of his force by sickness, though the death rate was very high in some commands. 493. War Ends Quickly. The war was short. It consisted of several engagements in Cuba, the sinking of the small Spanish fleet off Santiago and the important naval battle of Manila Bay in the Philippines. The war ended in victory for the Ameri- cans. Among those South Carolinians who saw service was Lieutenant Victor Blue of the navy, who distinguished himself by brilliant scouting near Santiago. 494. Prosperity Follows War. The price of cotton began to rise almost immediately after the war with Spain. This meant the end of the long period of financial depression in the South. Business at once began to revive. The cotton crop of 1900 was almost double that of 1890 and brouglit a good price. Consequently business expanded in all lines. Cotton manufac- turing developed until the whole face of the Up-Country was dotted with cotton mills. In the year 1899 eleven new cotton mills were built and sixteen old mills enlarged. The cotton seed oil and the lumber industries took on new life. The period 254 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA after the war with Spain was marked by activity in railroad building. 495. Diversification of Crops. Diversification of crops in South Carolina means the planting of other crops beside cotton. "Cotton is king" has been the State's slogan ever since the in- vention of the cotton gin and South Carolina has neglected other crops in favor of cotton, the great "money crop." About 1890 the movement for crop diversification began. From 1880 to 1890 the corn crop almost doubled. South Carolina began to raise other "money crops" — tobacco, cabbage, lettuce, Irish potatoes, strawberries and melons. 496. The Trucking Industry, The trucking industry was at first confined to Charleston, Colleton, Beaufort and Berkeley counties. Truck growing for market began on Yonge's Island in 1868. Cabbage and Irish potatoes were first tried and then other vegetables. Soon Yonge's Island could boast the largest cabbage fields in the world. In 1899 a colony of settlers from the Middle West came to Horry county and began trucking. Today the growing of strawberries, Irish potatoes and other truck in the lower Peedee section has developed into a great industry. Bamberg and Barnwell counties are noted for their great melon fields. 497. Tea Culture. The Pinehurst tea garden at Summer- ville is the only producing tea garden in America. Over 100 years ago tea plants were brought to America and were planted at Middleton Place on the Ashley river near Charleston, prob- ably by Michaux, a French botanist. 498. Tobacco Growing. Tobacco was grown by the Indians when South Carolina was discovered by Europeans. This crop has nearly always been an important one in the State. In the early nineties newspaper enterprise gave the industry a new start. The principal tobacco growing counties today are Florence, Dillon, Marion, "Williamsburg, Sumter, Horry and Clarendon. Each of these counties sell yearly tobacco by the million pounds. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 255 499. Fruit Growing. From mountains to seaboard South Carolina is well adapted for fruit growing. The Sand Hill belt produces delightful peaches, while fruits of almost every kind flourish in the Piedmont. In the coastal region oranges can be brought to perfection although they are no longer grown for market. The wild grapes which excited the admiration of the French colonists under Ribault in 1562 still abound. It is said that the first olives in America were grown in South Carolina and that at the time of the Revolution there was a ten acre olive grove on the south shore of Port Royal harbor. In Beaufort today are found olive and camphor trees, and oranges are raised on the sea islands. There are fine pecan groves in several counties in the State. 500. Charleston Exposition. In 1901, with the opening of the new century, the South Carolina and West Indian Exposi- tion was held in Charlesston. This exposition served to illustrate the wonderful resources of the State, and the remarkable develop- ment since the "War Between the Sections. The exposition showed what South Carolina had accomplished and what she was at the beginning of this century. CHAPTER XXXV SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 501. The Twentieth Century. Social progress makes the people of a state better and happier, while industrial progress develops a state's resources. The first twenty years of the Twentieth Century have been marked by both social and in- dustrial progress in South Carolina. The State has had many problems to face during these twenty years — the prohibition question, how to treat criminals, how to manage public chari- ties, the building of a system of highways, giving women the right to vote and, finally, how to organize the State to enable it to do its utmost to win the World War. 502. Governors in Recent Years. Duncan Clinch Heyward of Colleton county was chosen governor in 1902 and served for two terms. He was succeeded in 1907 by Martin F. Ansel of Greenville. Governor Ansel held the office for two terms and was followed by Coleman L. Blease of Newberry. Governor Blease resigned a few days before the end of his second term and was succeeded by the lieuten- ant governor, Charles A. Smith of Tim- monsville. Richard I. Manning of Sumter was elected governor in 1914 and, after serving for two terms, was succeeded by Robert A. Cooper of Laurens. Governor Cooper was re-elected for a second term in 1920. 503. The Prohibition Question. One of tlie important movements of recent times was that which finally resulted in 256 GovKiiNou Duncan C. Heyward. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 257 Governor Martin F. Ansel. prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors. We have seen that in South Carolina during Governor Tillman's administration the State Dispensary- system was created to sell liquor in place of the barrooms. The State Dis- pensary system was abolished after a few years and some of the officers con- nected with it were tried on charges of receiving bribes and other misconduct. The legislature gave each county the right to decide in an election whether it wanted a county dispensary. In 1909 there were twenty-one counties in which there were county dispensaries and an equal number in which the sale of liquor had been prohibited. The same year elections were held again and all of the twenty-one counties with dispensaries, except six, voted for prohibition. Five years later the people of South Carolina voted to prohibit the sale of liquor anywhere in the state. In 1919 the constitution of the United States was amended to prohibit the sale or manu- facturing of liquor. This action of the national government has apparently put an end to the vexing prohibition question for all time. 504. Treatment of Criminals. The best way to treat men who have com- mitted crimes has received much atten- tion in South Carolina in recent years. The State Penitentiary was established in Columbia just before the War Be- tween the Sections and used in place of the county jails for confining criminals sentenced by the courts. For several years after Reconstruction convicts were hired to private individuals or , -1 • r> • Governor Coleman L, companies and used m larming or blease. 258 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA building railroads. In several instances, the criminals were horribly mistreated. The chain-gang system was substituted for the hiring out of criminals and work for the criminals was also provided in the Penitentiary. Under the chain-gang system each county can use the male criminals to work the roads. Reformatories for boys were established, one for white boys at Florence and another for negro boys in Richland county. A re- formatory for white girls has also been built in Richland county. During Governor Blease's administration, the legisla- ture passed a law which provided that criminals sentenced to death by the courts should be electrocuted instead of hanged. The State Board of Charities and Corrections, now the State Board of Public Welfare, was created during Governor Man- ning's administration and given supervisory powers over state and county penal and charitable institutions. During Governor Cooper's first term, the duties of this board were enlarged. 505. Public Charities. The State Hospital for the Insane at Columbia, founded in 1821, was thoroughly reorganized and improvement of its buildings begun during Governor Manning's administration and under his leadership. The State Hospital has been changed into a modern institution for treating diseases of the mind. The State Sanitarium near Columbia where tubercular patients are treated was built during Governor Manning's administration, but the move- ment for it was started during the ad- ministration of Governor Blease. The poor of the State are cared for in alms- liouses or given money or food at the counties' expense. 506. Industrial Development. Probably the most important develop- ment in the industrial life of the State in recent years has been the building of great hydroelectric plants on the swift GovEUNOR Charles A. , r. ,i tt /-i . -n Smith. Streams 01 the Up-Country. linormous HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 259 Governor Richard I. Manning. concrete dams have been thrown across the rapids in several of these streams and the force of the imprisoned waters used to generate electric current. This electric power turns the wheels in many- cotton mills and other manufacturing plants in place of steam power. It is also used by street railway lines and interurban lines connecting various cities and towns. The State and counties have built hundreds of miles of improved highways to meet the de- mands of the thousands of citizens who own automobiles which can only travel to advantage on good roads. The automobile owners are taxed to pay part of the cost of building and maintaining highways in South Carolina which are under the supervision of the State Highway Department. The farmers of South Carolina, who still produce the greater part of the wealth of the State, have learned better methods of plant- ing their crops and, through their associations, are learning that co-operation in marketing their crops is most important and pays. The planters have grasped the importance of storing a part of their cotton crop and not flooding the market by selling it as fast as it comes from the gins. The State Warehouse system and many private warehouses provide places for storing cotton. Farmers are also inter- ested as never before in diversifynig their crops to combat the boll weevil, the cotton pest which has spread all over South Carolina. 507. Woman's Suffrage and Com- pulsory Education. The women of the State and nation were given the GovERNon Robert A. right to vote m elections during Gov- cooper. 260 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA ernor Cooper's first term. The law requiring children to attend school was also enacted while he was governor and on his recom- mendation. 508. The Mexican Trouble. The South Carolina Na- tional Guard w^as sent to the Mexican border along with other troops in 1916 to ward off bandit raids. The troops were on duty for a few months and then sent home when conditions in Mexico became more settled. South Carolina lost no men in battle during this trouble, but a few of its soldiers died in hospitals. One of these was Sergeant Robert Elliott Gonzales of Columbia, a brilliant newspaper writer and humorist, whose gifted pen had brought him fame all over the United States. CHAPTER XXXVI THE UNITED STATES GOES INTO THE WORLD WAR 509. Germany's Desire for World Conquest. The World War began in Europe in August, 1914. It came seemingly out of a clear sky. But by looking backward we can easily find its cause. For more than forty years Germany had been openly preparing for war. Under the iron rule of its Kaiser, William II, the children in the schools had been taught to worship the German government, which was a government based on military power, a government which believed that might made right. The Kaiser's government built up the best trained army on the globe for the purpose of conquering the world and bringing all the other nations under his rule. In 1914, when Germany was in perfect readiness for carrying out its plan of world conquest, none of the other nations of Europe were prepared for war. France and England were having troubles at home and the gov- ernments of both these countries were in the hands of men who opposed war and who were thus negligent about making any preparations for war. Russia also was in no condition to fight in 1914. The time was so favorable then for the Kaiser's plan that Germany eagerly awaited some excuse to declare war. 510. Germany's Excuse. An excuse to bring on a great war was offered in July, 1914, when the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the Archduke Ferdinand, and his wife while traveling in Sarajevo, Bosnia, were murdered by a half- crazed Serbian boy. Austria-Hungary, urged on by her ally, Germany, which saw in this incident an opportunity to bring on war, pretended to think that the murder was done for politi- cal reasons and that the Serbian government was responsible for it. In holding Serbia responsible for the murder Austria made outrageous demands upon this little country, knowing that no 261 262 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA self-respecting nation could comply with some of them. Serbia, being under the protection of Russia, was supported by that country in its refusal to grant some of the demands of Austria. Then, the Kaiser, pretending to believe that Russia was arming to fight Germany, declared war upon Russia. France and Russia were allies and thus the French were drawn into the war. In this way Germany brought about the struggle in which the Kaiser expected to conquer the world. 511. The Despoiling of Belgium. Germany decided to take Paris with one swift blow and from the great French capital to carry on the plan of world conquest. What Germany considered the easiest route to Paris ran through Belgium, which had not as yet been drawn into the war. It is a well recognized right of a neutral nation to forbid an invading army to pass over its soil. Besides, England, France and Germany had all solemnly promised to protect the neutrality of Belgium. At the beginning of the war Germany demanded of Belgium permission to send an army over its soil. Belgium refused, and Germany, calling its written promise to respect the neutrality of Belgium a "scrap of paper," began the march to Paris. Belgium threw its army in the path of Germany. With the resistance of Belgium began the most barbarous invasion known to the civilized world. All the recognized laws of modern war- fare were disregarded by Germany. Innocent Belgium was ruthlessly despoiled, her crops laid waste, her cathedrals de- stroyed, and her women and children treated by the German soldiers with a cruelty which would have shamed savages. Step by step the Belgian army was driven back and one by one the Germans captured the Belgian forts. 512. England Enters the War. The heroic resistance of Belgium gave France valuable time to make preparations to meet the enemy. But for the gallant fight of Belgium, Paris would surely have been taken. In the meantime, England, aroused by Germany's breach of faith in invading Belgium, and realizing the menace to all nations if Germany should be victorious in HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 263 defeating France, declared war upon Germany, The great countries of Europe were now all at war with Germany and Austria-Hungary. 513. The United States and the War. It has always been the policy of the United States to keep free from any entangling alliances such as those which had drawn all the great European countries into the "World War. We had thought that America, being separated from Europe by the Atlantic Ocean, could keep out of foreign wars. We had no wish to conquer smaller and weaker nations, nor to increase our territory. Thus, when the war commenced in 1914, we looked upon it as a struggle not our own and expressed no definite sympathy with the Allies — France, England, Russia, Belgium and Serbia, nor with the Central Powers — Germany and Austria-Hungary. Later, Rumania and Italy joined the Allies and Turkey and Bulgaria the Central Powers. When the stories of the brutalities and outrages of German soldiers in the occupied parts of France and Belgium began to reach the United States our people heard them with doubt, but when shortly afterwards proofs of these atrocities arrived all America was shocked. We began to realize what a military nation with the ideals of Germany would do to attain its ends. The military authorities of Germany had deliberately planned the war and were prepared to win it by breach of faith, savagery and any unfair means which might gain their ends. Along with the tales of the devastation of Belgium and part of France came accounts of like horrors in Poland and Serbia, the German soldier carrying destruction wherever he went. The common promptings of humanity aroused our sympathies for these suf- fering peoples. 514. The United States in Sympathy With the Allies. The people of the United States showed their sympathy for the inhabitants of the devastated parts of Belgium, Serbia, France and Poland by sending them money and ships loaded with food, clothing and other necessities. For two years the 264 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA struggle continued, the horrors of warfare as waged by the Germans becoming so terrible that our sympathies were drawn more and more to the Allies with each new outrage. We did not believe that the United States would be forced into the war, Part of Camp Jalksu.x ^seau Culumuia. however. President Woodrow AVilson, one of the greatest men who ever lived in the world, constantly urged our people to keep a neutral attitude so that at the end of the war this country as the one great neutral nation could act without prejudice as peace-maker for the world. 515. The German Submarine Campaign. As the war went on a neutral attitude became more and more impossible. Germany began a barbarous submarine campaign against our ships in which every recognized law of the seas was disregarded. Our ships were sunk without warning by German submarines miles from land where there was little chance of passengers being rescued. Relief ships from America carrying food for the starving Belgians, hospital ships carrying Red Cross nurses and wounded soldiers, and merchant ships flying the American flag and manned by American seamen were torpedoed and sunk without warning by the submarines, frequently with great loss of life. President Wilson made protest after protest to the HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 265 German government, reminding it of its promises and appealing to it in the name of humanity to discontinue this inhuman use of the submarine, but to no avail. 516. The United States Declares War Against Germany. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against Ger- many. The truth was forced upon us that the freedom of the world was menaced. If the free peoples of Europe were crushed by Germany the people of America were in danger. Already Germany had made war upon us by sinking our ships and murdering our countrymen upon them. With Europe con- quered Germany's next step would be to try to crush the United States. A nation with no respect for its written word nor for the common laws of humanity could not be allowed to become powerful enough to wage a successful war against America. In joining the Allies we were fighting for our own safety and for the freedom of mankind. The part played by the United M n ■Ty I j 1 rrtiiilSis '■ ' '"* "WS-™;^!?? ^ ^ - ■■-■'" -=^- Part of Camp Sevier Near Greenville. States during the first year after its entry into the World War may be grouped under the following four heads : the creation of an army, the work of the navy, the raising of money, and the production and saving of food. 266 HISTOEY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 517. The Selective Draft. Foremost among these was the creation and equipping of an army. Six weeks after war was declared upon Germany President Wilson signed a compulsory military service bill passed by Congress. On June 5, 1917, all men in the United States between the ages of 21 and 31 years were required to register for service in the National Army. On this day 9,586,508 men registered. Sixteen training camps, called cantonments, were established in various parts of the United States to prepare the drafted men for military service. The militia of the country was taken into the National Army. Camps were also provided for those who volunteered for train- ing as officers of the National Army. While these preparations were being made for the making of a great army from the civil population, a detachment from the regular army was sent to Europe to assist the Allies. In October, 1917, some American troops for the first time were put into the trenches on the French front. 518. Three Military Camps in South Carolina. Of the sixteen cantonments provided for the training of the drafted men three were built in South Carolina. One was placed near Columbia and called Camp Jackson, in honor of General Andrew Jackson, a native of South Carolina. The second camp was located near Greenville and named Camp Sevier, in honor of the Revolutionary soldier who fought so bravely at the Battle of King's Mountain. The third camp was at Spartanburg. It was called Camp Wadsworth. These three camps, a larger number than in any other state in the Union, were placed in South Carolina because of its temperate climate and other natural advantages. 519. The Work of the Navy. The United States Navy M^as prepared to fight at the beginning of the war. Months had to be given to the training of a land force, but at the first call the Navy was in readiness. During the first year of the war the Navy protected our own coasts, convoyed troops and food to our Allies, and worked in co-operation with the sea forces of HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 267 the Allies. The war on the sea, however, was centered chiefly around the efforts to destroy the German sub- marines. Plans for enlarg- ing the navy yard at Charles- ton were set on foot during 1918, and the Marine Corps' training station at Port Royal was greatly expanded. 520. The Liberty Loans. The expense of carrying on a great war is enormous. The United States consequently asked its people for loans. The loans were made by buy- ing Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps. During the first year of the war two Liberty Loans were floated by the Treasury Department. South Carolina largely over- subscribed its allotment in the second of these loans. 521. The Council of Defense. The Council of National Defense was created under an act of Congress in August, 1916. It was soon found that to keep in close touch with the different states that State Councils of Defense were necessary. In a very short time State Councils of Defense were organized in every state in the Union. The most important duties of these councils were to direct the war activities of the states, to give the Na- tional Council any needed information and to carry on a pub- licity campaign to keep the people in touch with the progress and aims of the war. The South Carolina State Council of Defense was organized in June, 1917. South Carolina was one of the first six states in the Union to complete its organization. The Council of De- Copyright Internatimial WooDKOw Wilson, President of the United States, to •whom free men everywhere looked for leader- ship during the World War. 26.8 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA fense of this state soon took high rank. The organization of tlie South Carolina Division of the Women's Council of Defense was perfected in July, 1917. 522. The Conservation of Food. After being informed that victory in the World War depended largely upon our ability to supply not only ourselves, but our Allies, with food, the people of the United States responded enthusiastically to the call of the government during the first year of the war to save and produce food. The United States Food Administration was established. To this organization the food control act, passed by Congress in August, 1917, gave power which it used during the war to stabilize the prices of food, to prevent specula- tion in food, and to secure the voluntary co-operation of the people of the United States in the tremendous campaign to save and produce food. South Carolina in common with all the other states was organized to carry on the work of the United States Food Administration. 523. The American Red Cross. The American Red Cross, an organization wdiich served the soldiers and sailors of our country and their dependents, grew tremendously after the United States entered the World War. It employed a large body of trained nurses to care for our soldiers wounded on the field of battle. It built hospitals in the rear of the trenches on the battle fronts and organized a great ambulance service to carry the wounded from the battle field to the hospitals. The Red Cross also took upon itself the duty of looking after the families of those of our men who were fighting in Europe or training in the cantonments. South Carolinians aided the Red Cross by contributions of money and services. Every county in the state had at least one Red Cross chapter. 524. The Nation in Arms. Though the United States ren- dered great aid to the Allies in the first twelve months after it declared war on Germany, this was entirely overshadowed by what our country was preparing to do in putting soldiers on the battle fronts in Europe, battleships and merchants ships on HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 269 the seas and aeroplanes in the air. In fact, our first year in the World War was given mainly to making preparations to do our part in wiping out of existence the government of Kaiser William II. CHAPTER XXXVII SOUTH CAROLINA TROOPS IN THE WORLD WAR 525. South Carolina Forces Drafted into the United States Army. When the United States entered the World War on April 6, 1917, the armed forces of South Carolina, under the name of the National Guard, consisted of the First and Second Infantry Regiments; the Charleston Light Dragoons, Troop A Cavalry; Company A, Engineers; a battalion of Coast Artillery, and a field hospital unit. A few months after war was declared all of these forces were drafted into the United States Army. 526. The Selective Draft. The selective draft, about which we studied in the preceding chapter, called to the service of their country men between twenty-one and thirty-one years of age. These were sent to the various camps for military train- ing. A great many of the men drafted from South Carolina were assigned to the Eighty-First Division. The State also supplied many officers and men to the Navy and the Marine Corps. Under the call for officers many of our men volunteered at the very beginning of the war and were sent to training camps for officers. Those who received commissions were placed in various divisions of the United States Army. There was hardly a division which did not include South Carolina men or officers. The majority of our men, however, served with the Thirtieth, the Forty-Second and the Eighty-First Divisions and our account will follow these divisions in greatest detail. 527. The Thirtieth Division. A large part of the National Guard of South Carolina was placed in the Thirtieth Division after being mustered into the United States Army. The First Regiment, South Carolina Infantry, was renamed the One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment and put in the Thirtieth Division. The Second Regiment, South Carolina Infantry, be- 270 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 271 came the One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train of the Thirtieth Division. The Charleston Light Dragoons became headquarters troop for the Thirtieth Division. The field hospital unit was also attached to the same division. Thus we shall follow the movements of the Thirtieth Division with great interest because the history of this division is also the history of the larger portion of the National Guard troops of South Carolina. The Thirtieth Division was trained at Camp Sevier near Greenville. The men in this division were chiefly from South Carolina, North Carolina and Tennessee. The Thirtieth was given Andrew Jackson's nickname, ''Old Hickory," so closely identified with the Carolinas and Tennessee. The Thirtieth marched into Belgium on July 4, 1918, where it united with the British. This division did not come into the American Expedi- tionary Forces until after the Armistice. The men of the Thirtieth received training in the front line with the British first as individuals, then by platoons and then by battalions. 528. The Forty-Second Division. Two companies of engi- neers were recruited in South Carolina and these, with the old Company A, Engineers, were organized into a battalion com- manded by Major J. M. Johnson of Marion. The battalion was placed in the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regi- ment. This regiment was mustered into the Forty-Second Divi- sion, which was knovTn as the "Rainbow Division" because it contained men from every state in the Union. The Forty- Second reached France in November, 1917. The South Carolina battalion in the division's One Hundred and Seventeenth Engi- neer Regiment was the first force from this State to get to France. After a period of training the Forty-Second began service with the French in the Luneville and Baccarat sector where its men gained valuable experience in deep shelter construction, excavation of trenches and erection of barbed wire. The One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment took care of the roads and constructed an entire position. It is important to 272 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA realize the true value of this engineering work. Without the keeping up of the roads and bridges, often at the cost of life, it would have been impossible to make attacks, or to transport food and ammunition. The business of war depended largely on the condition of the roads. The Engineer Regiment had to be made up of men trained in this line of work as well as men of courage and endurance. Often bridges had to be repaired under heavy fire. Also, the enormous amount of construction and trench work used on the battle fields of Europe made the work of the engineers of prime importance. Beside doing the usual engineering work, the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment was at times converted into an infantry regiment. 529. The Eighty-First Division. The Eighty-First Divi- sion was composed largely of men from South Carolina, North Carolina and Florida. An ambulance company was also re- cruited in South Carolina and attached to the Eighty-First. This division was called the "Wildcat Division" because of a stream known as Wildcat creek which ran through Camp Jack- son where the division was trained. This division was also known as the "Stonewall Division" after the great Confederate general, Stonewall Jackson. During the winter of 1917-1918 a large number of the men of the Eighty-First were transferred to other divisions and drafted men from other states brought in. In May, 1918, the Eighty-First was moved to Camp Sevier. The division left the camp in July for overseas. The Eighty- First reached France early in August and after a month 's train- ing at Tonnere was attached to a French corps in the St. Die sector just as the Thirtieth had been attached to a British corps. The month of service in the St. Die sector was spent in raiding the enemy and repulsing enemy attacks. It was found that our men were very successful in using shotguns and automatic rifles. There were a number of minor engagements in which the men of the Eighty-First acquitted themselves admirably. The plac- ing of the Division in this comparatively quiet sector was for the purpose of preparing it for front line work. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 273 530. Negro Soldiers from South Carolina. Negro soldiers from South Carolina were assigned to various regiments. Many of them saw service in France in labor battalions. The Three Hundred and Seventy-First Regiment, made up principally of negroes from South Carolina, was trained at Camp Jackson and placed in the Ninety-Second Division. This regiment saw some severe fighting for about ten days before the armistice was signed. Its record was good. 531. The Allies with Their "Backs to the Wall." The spring of 1918 found the Allies hard pressed by the Germans. In the great Battle of Picardy the British lost ground which they had won only by great sacrifice at the beginning of the war. The battle line extended from Arras to La Fere, and it was the aim of the Germans to break through to the French ports on the English Channel. They would thus have cut off the British from escape by sea and also have had a place to establish U-boat bases. Although the British were taxed to the limit of their endurance, fighting with their "backs to the wall," the line did not break. The Germans were so nearly victorious in the Battle of Picardy that the Allies realized that hope of success lay in placing all the allied armies under a central command. Ferdinand Foch, the great French general, was made commander-in-chief of all the allied forces. General Pershing immediately offered to put all the American troops then in France under his command. At this time our army abroad was not large and the Allies feared that America would not be able to get men in France in large enough numbers in time to save them from defeat. This was the most critical point of the war. 532. The Drive to Paris. After failing to take the channel ports in the Battle of Picardy, the Germans next turned to at- tack the French. This drive carried them to Chateau-Thierry on the Marne river, within forty-five miles of Paris. It was at the Marne that the Germans faced American troops for the first time. These troops were largely Marines, some from South 274 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Carolina. The Americans had been sent forward many miles to face the Germans, who seemed likely to end their drive with the capture of the French capital. At Chateau-Thierry the Marines amazed the French by the deadly accuracy of their fire. They were as calm during the dreadful fighting as in practice or at drill. It is an interesting coincidence that when the Marines helped to stem the tide at Chateau-Thierry they barred the way to the estate of the Marquis de Lafayette as well as the road to Paris. This is of especial interest to South Carolina because it will be remembered that when Lafayette came to this country to help the Americans in the Revolutionary War it was at Georgetown, South Carolina, that he landed. The South Carolinians among the Marines who helped to prevent the Germans from taking Lafayette's estate were repaying to his heirs a debt they owed. 533. German Drive on the Champagne Front. On July 15, the Germans began a drive on the Champagne front. This was met and repelled by the French with the aid of the Forty- Second Division. This division had been moved from the Bac- carat sector late in June to the Champagne front in anticipa- tion of the attack and was the only American division to take part in it. The One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineers had been engaged in the work of preparing defenses, and after finish- ing this duty occupied a sector and fought as infantry through the battle. 534. The Counter-Offensive. Matters looked extremely grave for the Allies. The Germans were so near Paris that the safety of the capital of France was seriously menaced. Marshal Foch felt that at last the time had come for a counter-attack. American soldiers were being poured into France on every ship and shiploads of food and ammunition were coming from America. Foch considered longer delay dangerous and three days after the Germans commenced their drive on the Cham- pagne front he gave the order for a great counter-offensive from the Marne to the Aisne rivers. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 275 535. Success of the Counter-Offensive. The Germans were taken completely by surprise by the counter-offensive. Their attack on the Champagne front failed and Foch pursued the advantage by striking again and again wherever he found the enemy least prepared. The battle line now ran from Switzerland to the North Sea. Sometimes the British and French would strike together, sometimes the French and Ameri- cans, and sometimes all three would attack in unison. This is what broke the German resistance. They never knew when or where to expect an attack and therefore could strengthen no particular place. They lost the offensive never to regain it. Of the long battle line we are most interested in the Champagne front, the Chateau-Thierry sector, the famous St. Mihiel wedge, the front near St. Quentin tunnel where the Hindenburg line was broken, the front near Montbrehain where so many Congres- sional Medals were won, and the Verdun front where the great Argonne-Meuse offensive ended the war. We are most inter- ested in these sections because the South Carolina units were engaged in them. 536. The Forty-Second in Chateau-Thierry Sector. The Forty-Second Division was moved from the Champagne front to the Chateau-Thierry front. In this attack the Forty-Second advanced rapidly to the Ourcq river where it fought for several days. On this front the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment kept the bridges in repair. On the night of August 1, the One Hundred and Seventeenth was converted into an infantry regiment and ordered to attack next morning. The One Hundred and Seventeenth advanced to the farthest point reached by the division during the attack. 537. First Fighting for the Thirtieth. On August 17, the Thirtieth Division took over an entire sector known as the Canal sector near Ypres in Belgium. On August 31 this division en- gaged with the British and the Twenty-Seventh American Divi- sion in an offensive. In this, its first fighting as a division, the Thirtieth captured all objectives including the town of Voor- 276 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA mezeele. The Thirtieth advanced 1,500 yards, capturing prisoners, machine guns and rifles as it went, and identified a German division which the British had long been trying to identify. 538. American Offensive. On September 12 the Ameri- cans began an ofi'ensive of their own. Our troops succeeded in two days in driving the Germans out of a wedge they had held for four years. This wedge was known as the St. Mihiel salient. The Forty-Second was moved from the Chateau-Thierry front to take part in the St. Mihiel drive. During the attack the Forty-Second took more than a thousand prisoners from nine enemy divisions. It captured seven villages and seized large supplies of food, clothing, ammunition, guns and engineering material. During the St. Mihiel attack the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment was used as wire cutters, to keep the roads open, and to guide the infantry into position. The attack went forward on schedule time due to the efficiency of this regiment. 539. Breaking the Hindenburg Line. On Sunday morn- ing, September 29, the Thirtieth Division, with the Twenty- Seventh Division on its left and the Forty-Sixth British Divi- sion on its right, attacked the Hindenburg line in front of the St. Quentin tunnel. This place was considered impregnable. It was protected by three lines of trenches and vast fields of barbed wire entanglements and machine gun nests. The tunnel was reinforced with an enormous amount of concrete and strengthened and fortified in every conceivable way. There was a complete underground system of chambers and galleries all wired with electric lights in which the German soldiers lived. It was the strongest stretch of the German lines and to break it seemed impossible. The Thirtieth Division, with the Twenty-Seventh American and the Forty-Sixth British Division, began the attack at five o'clock on the morning of September 29. The Thirtieth was the first to break through the Hindenburg line. Then it ad- HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 277 vaneed farther and captured the tunnel with the German troops in it. After this the Thirtieth with the Twenty-Seventh Ameri- can and the Forty-Second British Divisions took a number of cities, defeating two German divisions and capturing nearly 1,500 prisoners. The breaking of the Hindenburg line by the Thirtieth was one of the greatest feats of the war. 540. More Fighting for the Thirtieth Division. The Thirtieth took over the front line near Montbrehain from the Second Australian Division after smashing the Hindenburg line. Some of the fiercest fighting done by the Thirtieth took place at this time and the soldiers of the division during these attacks won more medals for daring personal bravery than those of any other division in the American army during the war. In the fighting from October 8 to 11 the Thirtieth Division encountered units from fourteen German divisions. It captured over three dozen villages and towns and liberated the grateful French inhabitants from the Germans. The difficulties in the field of fighting were very great. The country was dotted with little villages, patches of woods and sunken roads which offered numerous strongholds and points of vantage for the enemy. With the protection of these towns and wooded places the enemy was able to maintain a machine gun defense which made advance difficult and exceedingly dangerous. With unexcelled bravery the Thirtieth advanced in the face of these dangers and diffi- culties, sweeping everything before it. 541. Dozier's Gallantry. The attacks of the Thirtieth offer instances too numerous to recount of brave exploits by men from South Carolina. A mention of those exploits of men who were awarded the Congressional medal of honor, which is the highest any American soldier can receive, will give us an idea of the dangers and difficulties of the fighting and of the courage the men of the Thirtieth displayed. James C. Dozier of Rock Hill, first lieutenant. Company G, One Hundred and Eigh- teenth Infantry, Thirtieth Division, was painfully wounded in the shoulder during the fighting near the village of Montbre- 278 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA hain on October 8. In spite of the wound he continued to lead his command with great bravery and skill. In the advance his command was held up by heavy machine gun fire of the enemy. Lieutenant Dozier disposed his men under cover and with one soldier advanced to attack the machine gun nest. Creeping up to the position in the face of the most intense fire he killed the entire enemy crew with hand grenades and his pistol. Then his command was able to advance. A little later Lieutenant Dozier captured a number of Germans whom he found hiding in a dugout near by. He was awarded the Congressional medal of honor. 542. Thomas Lee Hall of Fort Hill. Another exploit which won the Congressional medal for bravery during this advance of the Thirtieth was that of Sergeant Thomas Lee Hall of Company G, One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry, Thirtieth Division. This was also during the fighting near Montbreliain. Sergeant Hall's platoon, having overcome two enemy machine gun nests under his skilful leadership, was stopped by machine gun fire of great intensity. Sergeant Hall disposed his men under cover and advanced alone. He killed five of the crew of the machine gun post with his bayonet, after which his platoon was able to advance. While attacking an- other machine gun nest later in the day this gallant soldier fell, mortally wounded. 543. Garey Evans Foster of Inman. Still another exploit which won the Congressional medal was that of Sergeant Garey Evans Foster, Company G, One Hundred and Eighteenth In- fantry, Thirtieth Division, near Montbrehain on October 8. Sergeant Foster's company was held up by violent machine gun fire from a sunken road. Sergeant Foster with an officer went forward to attack the machine gun nests. The officer was wounded as they advanced, but Sergeant Foster continued alone in the face of a heavy fire and with hand grenades and pistol killed several of tlie enemy and captured eighteen. 544. Richmond H. Hilton of Westville. A few days HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 279 after the brilliant exploits around Moiitbrehain, another South Carolinian won the Congressional medal by his courageous action at Brancourt. This was Sergeant Richmond H. Hilton, Com- pany H, One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry, Thirtieth Division. While Sergeant Hilton's company was advancing through the village of Brancourt it was held up by intense fire from a machine gun nest hidden among shell holes at the edge of the town. Sergeant Hilton, in advance of a few soldiers who accompanied him, pressed on towards the nest firing with his rifle until his ammunition was exhausted and then using his pistol. He killed six of the enemy and captured ten. In this daring advance Sergeant Hilton received a wound from bursting shell which resulted in the loss of an arm. 545. James D. Heriot of Providence. The day after Ser- geant Hilton's exploit at Brancourt, Corporal James D. Heriot, Company I, One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry, Thirtieth Division, received the Congressional medal for gallantry at the village of Vaux-Andigny in France. Corporal Heriot, with four soldiers, organized a group to attack a machine gun nest which had been inflicting heavy damage on his company. In the advance two of his men were killed and because of the heavy fire on all sides the remaining two sought shelter. Corporal Heriot, however, with fixed bayonet went on alone and charged the machine gun nest. He forced the enemy to surrender. He received several wounds and later in the day, while charging another machine gun nest, he was killed. 546. Gallantry of Corporal Villepigue of Camden. Three days later another South Carolinian received the coveted medal of honor for gallantry at the same village of Vaux-Andigny. This was Corporal John C. Villepigue, Company M, One Hun- dred and Eighteenth Infantry, Thirtieth Division. It was towards the end of the offensive in which the Thirtieth took such a great part and Corporal Villepigue was sent out to scout through the village of Vaux-Andigny. One of his men was killed and the other wounded by machine gun fire. Corporal ?80 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Villepigue continued alone for five hundred yards in advance of his platoon. In the face of a heavy machine ^m and artillery fire he came upon four of the enemy in a dugout. He attacked them and killed them with a hand grenade. Crawling forward he rushed a machine gun nest. Here he killed four and captured six of the enemy and took two light machine guns. After being joined by his platoon he was severely wounded in the arm. 547. Last Fighting of the Thirtieth. After the fighting in which the villages and towns of Montbrehain, Bancourt, Vaux- Andigny and about three dozen others were captured by the Thirtieth, this division was retired for a few days for rest. It then took over the right half of the sector held by the Twenty- Seventh American Division. On October 17, 18 and 19, the Thirtieth captured a number of towns and about 400 prisoners. The fighting was difficult and dangerous, but the Thirtieth steadily advanced in spite of stubborn opposition. The division was then withdrawn for a much needed rest and the war ended just as the Thirtieth was about to be put into the trenches again. 548. Praise for the Thirtieth. During this offensive the Thirtieth won the merited praise of Field Marshal Haig, the British general, General Pershing and numerous other high officers. The fact that the break in the impregnable Hindenburg line was actually made on the divisional front is ample reason for the Thirtieth to be proud of the results of its fighting. Field Marshal Haig said of the Division that ''through three weeks of almost coTitinuous fighting you advanced from one success to another, overcoming all resistance, beating off numerous counter- attacks, and capturing several thousand prisoners and many guns." The French inhabitants of the many towns liberated by the Thirtieth addressed letters of gratitude to the commander of the division. The Thirtieth covered itself with glory. 549. The One Hundred Eighteenth Infantry, "South Caro- lina's Own." If any regiment could be called "South Caro- lina's Own" it is the One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry. It was composed chiefly of men from the old First South Caro- HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 281 lina Infantry, National Guard, which was ordered to Greenville to make part of the Thirtieth Division. This regiment left home in command of Colonel Peter K. McCully, Jr., of Anderson, but without good reason this officer was transferred later on. The One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry was in the very thick of the fight at the St. Quentin Canal sector where the Hinden- burg line was broken. This regiment bore the burden of South Carolina's casualties and carried away the largest share of in- dividual medals in the United States Army. The six Congres- sional medals already mentioned were won by men of the One Hundred and Eighteenth. This regiment lost heavily in killed and wounded. When Colonel McCully led the One Hundred and Eigh- teenth into Belgium he took the first American regiment into that country. The One Hundred and Eighteenth pitched camp at Dirty Bucket Camp about five miles behind the ruins of Ypres. This regiment was gradually introduced into the front line and took prominent part in all the activities, already pictured, of the Thirtieth Division. 550. The One Hundred Fifth Ammunition Train. The nucleus of the One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train was the old Second South Carolina Infantry, National Guard, with a record for gallantry extending back to the War of 1812. Colonel Holmes B. Springs of Georgetown was commander of all the divisional trains of which the One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train was a part. Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Lewis of York commanded the One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train. In addition to commanding the divisional trains Colonel Springs was on the staff of the division. The divisional trains did a vast amount of arduous and dangerous work in France carrying ammunition and supplies under the most dangerous circumstances to many divisions. 551, The End of War in Sight. The German resistance was being steadily broken by the numerous attacks of the Allies. We can tell here only of the drives in which South 282 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Carolina units took part, but all along the great battle line Foch had thrown the allied forces in attacks which were slowly but surely defeating the Germans, This was the situation in Novem- ber, 1918, w^hen the American First Army began a wonderful drive northwest of Verdun. In this the Forty-Second and the Eighty-First Divisions took part. The drive was through the great Argonne Forest in France. Our troops had to advance against row upon row of machine gun nests and fortified de- fenses of every description. It was at a dreadful loss of life, but steadily the Americans advanced through the forest. By November 7 they had reached Sedan. This drive cut through the long German line running from Switzerland to the North Sea and divided the German Army. Realizing that they were defeated the Germans begged for an armistice. 552. Gallant Fighting of the Eighty-First. On November 6, the Eighty -First Division began its front line service, still attached to the French corps. The Eighty-First received orders on the night of November 8 to attack the Germans on the Woevre plain, south of Verdun. This was the last phase of the great Meuse-Argonne offensive. This sector on the "Woevre plain was a part of the main Hindenburg system of defenses. The Germans had held this position since early in the war. They were strongly fortified and the marshy plain was full of barbed wire entanglements. The Eighty-First had to make its way through this field to get at the enemy. 553. The Last Attack by the Eighty-First Division. The Eighty-First attacked early on the morning of November 9. The division was confronted by three German divisions. The Eighty-First attacked with irresistible dash and bravery. The division advanced steadily, and forced the position. The Ger- mans were falling back, though fighting stubbornly, when the signing of the Armistice ended the war. The Eighty-First fought until eleven o'clock on Armistice day, November 11, 1918. The Eighty-First suffered many of its 1,506 casualties on that day. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 283 554. The Forty-Second in the Argonne-Meuse Offensive. The Forty-Second also took part in the great blow the Allies struck west of the Meuse river, the last blow of the war. March- ing and fighting day and night the Forty-Second thrust through the advancing lines of the First American Army of which it was a part and drove the enemy across the Meuse. The Forty- Second captured the heights dominating the river before Sedan and reached the farthest point in enemy lines attained by any American troops. During this offensive which marked the last fighting, the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment carried on the same work of keeping roads open, wire cutting and assisting tanks. Often the work had to be carried on with- out suitable instruments, or necessary food. The task of pass- ing the artillery, the supplies, ammunition and food devolved upon the engineers. During this period Major J. M. Johnson became colonel of the regiment. 555. Long Service of the Forty-Second Division. The Forty-Second had been in France over a year when the Armis- tice was signed. In February, 1918, this division went into the lines to stay almost continuously until the end of the war. Out of the 224 days after it entered the lines, it was actually en- gaged with the enemy 180 days. The remainder of the time was spent in moving from front to front — from Champagne to Chateau-Thierry, from St. Mihiel to Verdun for the last great offensive in the Argonne — ^or in close reserve behind the front. The Forty-Second was the only American division to assist in the defeat of the great German offensive of July 15 in Cham- pagne. From that time on it took part in every large American operation. When the war ended, the Forty-Second, as it lay before Sedan, had reached the northernmost point attained by the First American Army. 556. The Congressional* Medal. Seventy-eight American soldiers received the Congressional medal of honor. This is the highest award any American soldier can win. The medal of honor is awarded "for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity 284 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy." South Carolinians received six of the seventy-eight medals awarded. Only two states, one the large one of New York, which received ten, and Illinois, which received eight, got a larger number than the small state of South Carolina. In the Southern states Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama and Texas received one Congressional medal each. 557. The Distinguished Service Cross. The Distinguished Service Cross is awarded for personal bravery, but of not so dis- tinguished a character as that rewarded by the medal of honor. South Carolinians received eighty-nine distinguished service crosses. Besides these many South Carolina officers and men were awarded medals by the British and French governments. A knowledge of the exploits which merited these crosses and medals gives us a vivid picture of the courage and daring and unexcelled gallantry of our men who fought overseas. We see them in little groups or alone charging a deadly machine gun nest in order that their companies might advance. We see them dashing out in full view of the enemy, with shells bursting all around them, to bring in some fallen comrade. We see wounded men refusing to be carried back to first aid stations because of taking fighting men away from the trenches. We see them sometimes wounded fatally, yet staying at their posts. We see them working tirelessly and fearlessly in the rain and mud, often without rest or food, carrying messages under dangerous condi- tions, acting as stretcher bearers, giving first aid coolly under heavy fire without regard to personal safety. We see them fighting with pistols, bayonets, hand grenades, machine guns and always stubbornly advancing. We see an officer with two soldiers attack forty Germans and their four machine guns and force them to surrender. From shell hole to shell hole we see our troops crawling, or picking their way through barbed wire en- tanglements, or fighting in trenches, or charging openly with fixed bayonets in the face of a deadly fire. The medals and crosses are symbols of the courage and gallantry and of the effi- cient fighting of the South Carolina soldiers. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 285 558. Looking Backward. Two hundred and fifty years ago South Carolina was a wilderness unbroken by roads and inhabited only by Indians. A moving picture of the life of the State — only about six generations — might show a pioneer coming to Charles Town in 1670 in company with two hundred other strong souls. We should see this pioneer perhaps settling permanently at Charleston or perhaps going up a river into the pine lands, clearing ground for planting, tending cattle and defending himself from the Indians. The pioneer's children would witness the thick settling of the Low-Country, the move- ment of settlers into the Up-Country, and the growth of an independent spirit developing into a desire for separation from England. The third generation fight England, win their inde- pendence largely through the deathless courage of the South Carolina Partisans and South Carolina becomes a state in the United States. The fourth generation marks the marvelous de- velopment of the United States and sees South Carolina, at this time a wealthy slave owning and cotton growing State, become a power in national affairs. This generation also has a part in serious quarrels over the tariff and slavery which occur between the North and the South. The fifth generation fights the United States to get out of the Union. Made bankrupt by the brave attempt, this generation starts rebuilding its fallen fortunes and lays the foundation for a great manufacturing development. The children of the fifth generation find themselves forced into the World War. They go into the struggle wholeheartedly, re- gardless of cost, as South Carolinians have always done, and take a brave part in winning the war which saves civilization from the German menace. 559. Looking Forward. To develop a proper state pride, it is necessary for South Carolinians to know the history and resources of their State. South Carolina has a climate which permits the growing of crops the year round. South Carolina has a soil which produces in abundance everything that man needs to eat and a soil and climate adapted to producing cotton 286 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA for his clothing. South Carolina has rivers which supply electric power to mills to use in making this cotton into cloth of any texture, pattern and quality. South Carolina borders the ocean and has harbors large enough and deep enough to develop a rich commerce with the world. South Carolina has mountains and wonderful scenery only waiting to be developed into pleasure grounds for her people. South Carolina has a homogeneous population descended from the best of the Old "World stock. South Carolina has within her borders two races, the white and the black, who can work side by side, if untroubled by outside interference, to develop the resources of the State. No state in the Union has a prouder past than South Carolina. Studying the State's record will enable us to realize upon what a solid foundation for future greatness the present generation has to build. APPENDIX GOVERNORS OF SOUTH CAROLINA Compiled by A. S. Salley, Jr., Secretary of the Historical Com- mission of South Carolina Under Proprietary Government 1. William Sayle, March 17, 1670-March 4, 1671. (Named by Sir John Yeamans in a commission from the Lords Proprietors.) 2. Joseph West, March 4, 1671-April 19, 1672. (Elected by the Council to succeed Sayle, resigned.) 3. Sir John Yeamans, April 19, 1672-August, 1674. (Ap- pointed by the Palatine. Died in August, 1674.) 4. Joseph West, August 13, 1674-October, 1682. (Elected by the Council upon the death of Yeamans, a commission from the Palatine being on its way to him at the time. From June to October, 1675, during the absence of Gov- ernor West, John Godfrey, by choice of the Council, acted as Governor.) 5. Joseph ]\Iorton, October, 1682-August, 1684. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 6. Sir Richard Kyrle, August, 1684. (Appointed by the Pala- tine. Died in less than a month after assuming office.) 7. Joseph West, August 30, 1684- July 1, 1685. (Elected by the Council to succeed Kyrle, and was later appointed by the Palatine. Resigned in June, 1685.) 8. Robert Quary, June-October, 1685. (Elected by the Coun- cil to succeed West.) 287 288 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 9. Joseph Morton, October, 1685-November, 1686. (Ap pointed by the Palatine.) 10. James Colleton, 1686-1690. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 11. Seth Sothell, 1690-1692. (Assumed the governorship by right of being a Proprietor.) 12. Philip Ludwell, 1692-1693. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 13. Thomas Smith, 1693-1694. (Appointed by the Palatine. Died in November, 1694.) 14. Joseph Blake, November, 1694- August 17, 1695. (Elected by the Council on the death of Smith.) 15. John Archdale, August 17, 1695-October 29, 1696. (As- sumed the governorship by right of being a Proprietor. Retired October 29, 1696, appointing Joseph Blake deputy governor in his stead.) 16. Joseph Blake, October 29, 1696-September 7, 1700. (Ap- pointed deputy governor by Archdale and subsequently assumed the governorship in right of being a Proprietor.) 17. James Moore, 1700-1702. (Elected by the Council in Sep- tember, 1700, on the death of Blake.) 18. Sir Nathaniel Johnson, 1702-1710. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 19. Edward Tynte, 1710. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 20. Robert Gibbes, 1710-1711. (Elected by the Council on the death of Tynte.) 21. Charles Craven, 1711-1716. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 22. Robert Daniell, 1716-1717. (Appointed by Craven as deputy. ) 23. Robert Johnson, 1717-1719. (Appointed by the Palatine.) II Under Royal Government 1. James Moore, 1719-1721. (Son of 17. Elected by a con- vention of the people, who had overthrown the govern- ment of the Proprietors.) HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 289 2. Sir Francis Nicholson, 1721-1729. (Provisional governor, appointed by the Crown. During his absence, from 1724 to 1729, Arthur Middleton, President of the Council, administered the government.) 3. Robert Johnson, 1729-1735. 4. Thomas Broughton, 1735-1737. (Lieutenant-Governor act- ing governor, with full powers of governor.) 5. William Bull, 1737-1743. (President of the Council, and later Lieutenant-Governor, acting governor.) 6. James Glen, 1743-1756. 7. William Henry Lyttelton, 1756-1760. 8. William Bull, 1760-1761. (Son of 5. Lieutenant-Governor acting governor.) 9. Thomas Boone, 1761-1764. 10. William Bull, 1764-1766. (Lieutenant-Governor acting governor. ) 11. Lord Charles Greville Montagu, 1766-1773. (During the absences of Governor Montagu in 1768 and from 1769 to 1771 Lieutenant-Governor Bull acted as governor.) 12. William Bull, 1773-1775. (Lieutenant-Governor acting governor. ) 13. Lord William Campbell. 1775. 14. Henry Laurens, 1775-1776. (President of the Council of Safety, an executive body organized from a congress of the people, administering the government.) Ill Under State Government Presidents 1. John Rutledge, 1776-1778. 2. Rawlins Lowndes, 1778-1779. 290 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA Governors^ 1. John Rutledge, 1779-1782^ 2. John Mathews, 1782-1783. 3. Benjamin Guerard, 1783-1785. 4. William Moultrie, 1785-1787. 5. Thomas Pinckney, 1787-1789. 6. Charles Pinckney, 1789-1792^ 7. William Moultrie, 1792-1794. 8. Arnoldus Vander Horst, 1794-1796. 9. Charles Pinckney, 1796-1798. 10. Edward Rutledge, 1798-1800. (Died in January, 1800, and was succeeded by John Drayton, lieutenant-governor.) 11. John Drayton, 1800-1802. (Lieutenant-Governor succeed- ing Edward Rutledge, deceased; re-elected in December, 1800, for a full term.) 12. James Burchill Richardson, 1802-1804. 13. Paul Hamilton, 1804-1806. 14. Charles Pinckney, 1806-1808. 15. John Drayton, 1808-1810. 16. Henry Middleton, 1810-1812. 17. Joseph Alston, 1812-1814. 18. David R. Williams, 1814-1816. 19. Andrew Pickens, 1816-1818. 20. John Geddes, 1818-1820. 21. Thomas Bennett, 1820-1822. 22. John Lyde Wilson, 1822-1824. ' The Constitution of 1778 fixed ttie meeting time of the General Assembly in January and the election of governor by that body followed at the session succeeding the general election for the General Assembly, which was held in the autumns of the even years. - Governor Rutlodge's successor should have been chosen at the session of 1781, but the State being in the hands of the British no general election could be held in 1780 or any legislative election in 1781. 3 The Constitution of 1790 changed the meeting time of the General Assembly from January following general elections to November following, and when Governor Pinckney's term expired in January, 1791, the General Assembly re-elected him for the short term ending November, 1792. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 291 23. Richard Irvine Manning, 1824-1826. 24. John Taylor, 1826-1828. 25. Stephen D. Miller, 1828-1830. 26. James Hamilton, Jr., 1830-1832. 27. Robert Y. Hayne, 1832-1834. 28. George McDuffie, 1834-1836. 29. Pierce Mason Butler, 1836-1838. 30. Patrick Noble, 1838-1840. (Died April 7, 1840 ; succeeded by B. K. Henagan, lieutenant-governor.) 31. B. K. Henagan, 1840. (Lieutenant-Governor succeeding Patrick Noble, deceased.) 32. John Peter Richardson, 1840-1842. (Nephew of 12.) 33. James H. Hammond, 1842-1844. 34. William Aiken, 1844-1846. 35. David Johnson, 1846-1848. 36. Whitemarsh B. Seabrook, 1848-1850. 37. John Hugh Means, 1850-1852. 38. John Laurence Manning, 1852-1854. (Son of 23.) 39. James Hopkins Adams, 1854-1856. 40. Robert F. W. Allston, 1856-1858. 41. William H. Gist, 1858-1860. 42. Francis Wilkinson Pickens, 1860-1862. (Son of 19.) 43. Milledge Luke Bonham, 1862-1864. 44. Andrew Gordon Magrath, 1864-1865. (Arrested by the Federal Government, sent to prison and deposed as gov- ernor.) 45. Benjamin Franklin Perry, June-November, 1865. (Pro- visional governor appointed by President Johnson.) 46. James Lawrence Orr, 1865-1868. (Deposed by Act of Federal Congress reconstructing the Southern States, General Canby acting as military governor until a new government could be established.) 47. Robert K. Scott, 1868-1872. (Elected under the new con- stitution ; inaugurated in July ; re-elected in November, 1870.) 292 HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 48. Franklin J. Moses, Jr., 1872-1874. 49. Daniel H. Chamberlain, 1874-1876. 50. Wade Hampton, 1876-1879. (Re-elected for a second term. in 1878; elected United States Senator and resigned in February, 1879 ; succeeded by W. D. Simpson, lieutenant- governor. ) 51. William Dunlap Simpson, 1879-1880. (Lieutenant-Gover- nor succeeding Wade Hampton in February ; resigned in September, 1880, having been elected Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court.) 52. Thomas B. Jeter, 1880. (President of the Senate succeed- ing W. D. Simpson, resigned.) 53. Johnson Hagood, 1880-1882. 54. Hugh Smith Thompson, 1882-1886. (Re-elected for a second term in 1884; resigned in July, 1886, having been ap- pointed Assistant Secretary of the Treasury of the United States by President Cleveland.) 55. John C. Sheppard, July-December, 1886. (Lieutenant-Gov- ernor succeeding Hugh S. Thompson, resigned.) 56. John Peter Richardson, 1886-1890. (Son of 32. Two terms.) 57. Benjamin Ryan Tillman, 1890-1894. (Two terms.) 58. John Gary Evans, 1894-1897\ 59. William H. Ellerbe, 1897-1899. (Elected for a second term in 1898, but died in June, 1899 ; succeeded by M. B. McSweeney, lieutenant-governor. 60. Miles B. McSweeney, 1899-1903. (Lieutenant-Governor suc- ceeding W. H. Ellerbe, deceased ; re-elected in 1900 for a full term.) 61. Duncan Clinch Heyward, 1903-1907. (Two terms.) 62. Martin F. Ansel, 1907-1911. (Two terms.) 63. Coleman Livingston Blease, 1911-1915. (Served almost 1 The Constitution of 1805 changed the nieetinj? time of the General Assembly .infl the inauguration of the governor to January, thereby lengthening Governor Evans's term into 1897. HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 293 two terms, resigning five days before the expiration of his second term; succeeded by Charles A. Smith, lieutenant- governor.) 64. Charles A. Smith, January 14-19, 1915. (Lieutenant-Gov- ernor succeeding C. L. Blease, resigned.) 65. Richard Irvine Manning, 1915-1919 (Two terms. Grand- son of 23.) 66. Robert A. Cooper, 1919 — (Re-elected in 1920 for a second term.) INDEX Abbeville, 72 Abbeville County, 64, 121, 155, 157, 173 Abolitionists, 167, 168 Adams, James H., 180 Aiken County, 170, 224 Aiken, Wm., 170, 171^ Albemarle, Duke of, 7 Aldrich, A. P., 215 AUston, Robert F. W., 180 Alston, Joseph, 154 Alston, Joseph K., 253 Anderson, 226 Anderson College, 248 Anderson County, 100, 218 Archdale, John, 25 Anderson, Richard H., 184, 192 Ansel, Martin F., 256 Arsenal, The, 169 Ashepoo River, 125 Ashley, Lord, Anthony, 7, 10, 16 Ashley River, 10, 67, 84, 104 Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, 250 Attakullakulla, 60 Augusta, 64, 106, 128, 169 "Back Country," 51, 65, 73, 75, 91, 96 Baptist Church, 70, 152, 247 Barbadoes, Island of, 9, 13, 16, 17, 38 Barnwell, Capt. John, 89, 90 Barnwell, Col. John, 31, 47, 50 Barnwell County, 226 Bates, Wm., 146 Battles: at siege of Charles Town, 104-105 Bigin Church, 130; Black Mingo, 117 Blackstocks, 121; Camden, 114-115, 159 Cedar Springs, 113; Churubusco, 172 Cowpens, 123; Eutaw Springs, 131-132 Fish Dam Ford, 121; Fishing Creek, 116 Ft. Moultrie, 98-99; Guilford Court House, 126, 131; Halfway Swamp, 124; Hammond's Store, 121; Hanging Rock, 113; Hobkirk's Hill, 126; King's Moun- tain, 118-120; Lexington, 87; Manassas (First), 187; Manassas (Second), 193; Musgrove's Mills, 117; off the coast during 1812, 154; of Picardy, 273; of the Iron- clads, 196; Port's Ferry, 113; Quenby Bridge, 130; Rocky Mount, 113; Seces- sionville, 191; Tarcote Swamp, 117; Wiggin's Hill, 125; Williamson's Plantation, 113, 121; Yorktown, 132 Beaufort, 83, 106, 210, 215 Beaufort County, 2 Beaufort district, 125 Beaufort Town, 32, 33 Bee, Barnard E., 187 Bennett, Thos., 158 Berkeley County, 20, 254 Berkeley, Lord, John, 7 Berkeley, Sir William, 7, 25 Bermuda, 9 Bigin Church, 130 "Black Code," 212 Black River, 55 Black Swamp, 103 Blake, Joseph, 26, 28 Blease, Coleman L., 256 Blue Ridge Mountains, 61, 158 Blue, Victor, 253 Bonham, M. L., 187, 197 Bonnet, Stede, 38 Boone, Thomas, 67, 69, 80 Breach Inlet, 97 Brewton, Miles, 127 Broad River, 91, 121 Brooks, Preston S., 180 Broughton, Thomas, 56 Brown, Thos., 91, 92 Bull, Wm. (the elder), 57, 58 Bull, Wm. (the younger), 62, 65, 80, 89 Butler, M. C, 193, 225 Butler, Pierce, 140, 141 Butler, Pierce M., 167, 171 Butler, Wm., 133 Cacique, 7, 9 Cainhoy, 226 Calhoun County, 127 Calhoun family, 64, 155 Calhoun, John C, 154, 155-156, 165, 109, 177 Calhoun, Patrick, 64 Camden, 83, 114, 127, 142, 208 Campbell, Lord Wm., 89, 92, 99 Camp Jackson, 266 Camp Sevier, 266 Camp Wadsworth, 206 Canals, 157-158 Capers, ElUson, 191 Capers's Island, 155 Cardross, Lord, 21, 32 Carolina, Province of: boundaries, 7; charter for, 8; churches in, 72; counties, 20; during Royal Period, 69-76; English settlers reach, 9; first crops, 17; free schools, 30, 72; freedom of religion in, 8; given to Lords Proprietors, 7; immigration to, 16, 21, 45, 54; Indian trade, 17; indigo raised in, 59; laws for, 9, 50; Loyalists in, 91; made a State, 95; militia in, 19; nobility in, 8; overthrows Pro- prietors, 46^8; piracy on coast of, 36-44 pirates in, 18; population of, 48, 69 professional men in, 71; rice grown in, 24 ■ roads in, 19; royal governor for, 50 taken by king, 48; taxation, 23, 45, 78 "Carpet baggers," 215 295 296 INDEX Carteret, Sir George, 7 Catawba River, 112 Catholic schools, 251 Cattel, Benjamin, 89 Cattel, Wm., 89 Chamberlain, Daniel H., 223, 227 Charles II, 7, 9, 18, 23 Charles IX, 1, 3, 6 Charleston: and railroads, 170; arms vessels, 154; attacked by Federals, 190; College of, 245; cotton market, 158; cotton mill in, 145; Exposition, 255; harbor blockad- ed, 196; hterary group at, 173-174; Republican convention at, 216; Seces- sion convention at, 182; Washington's visit to, 142 Charleston Light Dragoons, 200, 270 Charles Town: British capture, 104, 106; British fleet in harbor, 98, 104; British troops at, 65, 82; churches, 70; delegates meet at, 85; exports, 17,49, 70; fire, 27 58; first newspaper, 56; founded, 10 free library in, 26; free school at, 31 French fleet threatens, 29; Georgia colony arrives at, 56; growth of, 17, 48, 70; in Berkeley County, 20; library society, 73; manners and customs, 73; merchants, 70; moved to Oyster Point, 12; name changed, 138; overland trade, 101; piracy injures trade of, 37; planters' houses in, 75; Spaniards threaten, 13; stamped paper in, 79; "tea party," 86 Charles Town Baptist Association, 152 Charles Town Library Society, 73 Cheraw, 159, 208 Cheraws, 83 Cherokee County, 123 Chester, 233 Chester County, 113, 118, 121 Cheves, Langdon, 154, 157 Chicora College, 250 Church of England, 15, 101 Citadel, The, 169, 246 Clarendon County, 124 Clarendon, Earl of, 7 Clemson College, 238, 246 Clemson, Thos. G., 237, 247 Clinton College, 250 Chnton, Sir Henry, 97, 104, 106 Coker College, 248 Coker, James L., 248 Coligny, Admiral, 1 Collector of King's Revenue, 23, 77 College of Charleston, 174, 245 Colleton County, 21, 156, 254 Colleton, James, 24 Colleton, Sir John, 7 Columbia, 124, 142, 159, 221 Columbia College, 249 Committee of ninety-nine, 86, 93 Commons House, 50, 57, 68, 93 Compulsory education, 259 Confederate Home College, 251 Congarees, 62, 66 Congaree River, 55, 124, 127 Columbia Theological Seminary, 250 Congregational Church, 70 Continental Congress, 86, 90, 108, 137 Converse College 250 Converse, D. E., 250 Cooper River, 12, 86, 149 Cooper, Robert A., 256 CornwalUs, Lord, 106, 114, 120, 123 Cotton: cloth manufactured, 145, 170, 232; effect on transportation, 158; gin invented, 143; grown more widely, 143-144; in- creases demand for slaves, 144; low prices for, 236, 241 Cotton seed crushing, 233 Council, Lords Proprietors', 15, 37, 40 Council of Safety, 88, 91, 93 Council, Royal, 50, 57, 62, 101 Courts, 83 Cow drivers, 52 Cow pens, 52 Cowpens, 118 Craven, Charles, 30, 32, 33, 35 Craven county, 20 Craven, William, Earl of, 7 Gumming, Sir Alexander, 54 Cuningham, "Bloody Bill," 133 Daniell, Robt., 28, 35, 36 Darlington Guards, 252 "Darlington War," 240 DeKalb, Baron, 115, 159 Dennis, John B., 228 Dewees's Island, 155 Dickinson, J. P., 172 Dispensary system, 240, 257 Dorchester, 130 Dozier, James C, 277 Drayton, John, 149, 150 Drayton, Wm. Henry, 88, 91, 95 Due West Female College, 250 Edgefield, 133, 225, 228 Edisto Island, 23 Edisto Rifles, 252 Edisto River, 55, 133 Eighty-First Division, 270, 272 Ellenton riot, 226 Ellerbe, Thos., 252 Ellerbe, W. H., 252 Elliott, Barnard, 89 Elliott, Stephen, 198 English church, 17 Enoree River, 92, 146 Episcopal church, 70, 72, 101, 151 Erskine College, 250 Estatoe, 66 Evans, John Gary, 241 Evans, N. G., 187 Eveleigh, Nicholas, 89 Fairfield County, 218 Farmers' movement, 236 Ferguson, Colonel, 117, 120 Fire arrows, 127 Flag, State, 94, 172 Fletchall, Thos., 91, 94 Forts: at Augusta, 128; at Charles Town, 12, 30, 54; at Goose Creek, 34; Balfour, 125; Caroline, 5; Charles, 3, 4; Char- lotte, 90; Gowen's, 133; Loudoun, 61, 65; Prince George, 61, 63, 66; Sumter, 183, 197; Watson, 126, 128 Forty-Second Division, 270 Foster, Garey Evans, 278 INDEX 297 Freedmen's Bureau, 214 Fundamental Constitutions, S, 11, 15 Furman, Richard, 248 Furman University, 248 Gadsden, Christopher, 62, 79, 89, 134 Garden, Alexander, 71 Geddes, John, 158 George I, 36, 47, 50 George II, 54, 77 George III, 82, 87 Georgetown, 72, 86, 129 Georgetown County, 159 Gibbes, Robert, 30 Gibbes, Wm., 88 Gist, Wm. H., 180 Gladden, A. H., 172 Glen, James, 58, 61 Gonzales, Robt. ElUott, 260 Goose Creek, 34 Granby, 124, 128 Granite quarries, 234 Graniteville mill, 170 Great Peedee River, 112 Great Warrior, 62, 63 Greene, Nathaniel, 121, 126, 131 Greenville, 233, 248 Greenville County, 100, 133, 146 Greenville district, 145 Greenville Woman's College, 248 Greenwood, 249 Gregg, Maxcy, 184, 194 Gregg, Wm., 170 Guerard, Benjamin, 137, 138 Guerard, Peter Jacob, 25 Haddrell's Point, 94 Hagood, Johnson, 184, 204 Hall, Thos. Lee, 278 Hamburg, 169, 224 Hamburg riot, 224 * Hamilton, Paul, 150 Hamilton, James, Jr., 165 Hammett, Henry Pinckney, 233 Hammond, James H., 169 Hampton, 252 Hampton campaign, 226 Hampton, Wade, (the elder), 126, 130, 154 Hampton, Wade (the younger), 187, 193, 202, 225 227 Harden, Wm., 124, 130, 133 Harleston, Isaac, 89 Hayne, Isaac, 130, 131 Hayne, Paul Hamilton, 174 Hayne, Robt., Y., 161, 164, 170 Henagan, B. K., 167 Heriot, James D., 279 Heyward, Daniel, 145 Heyward, D. C, 256 Heyward, Thos., Jr., 100, 145 Hill factory, 146 Hill, Leonard, 146 Hill, Wm., 118 Hindenburg line, 276 Hobkirk's Hill, 126, 127 Horry County, 254 Horry, Daniel, 89, 124, 133 Horry, Elias, 170 Horry, Peter, 89, 124, 133 Horse racing, 74 Huger, Benjamin, 192 Huger, Francis, 89 Huger, Isaac, 89 Huguenot church, 70, 72 Huguenots, 1, 16, 67, 73 Hunkidori club, 229 Hydroelectric plants, 258 Hyrne, Edmund, 89 Independent Battalion, 252 Indians: aid British, 103; Appalachian, 29, 33; Cherokee, 51, 54, 60-68, 78, 92, 100, 133; Creek, 33; French among, 53, 60; in London, 54; Kiawah, 9, 11; Kussoe, 12; massacre Calhouns, 65; slaves, 18; Stono, 11; trade with, 17; tribes in Carolina, 10; Tuscarora, 31; welcome French, 3; Westo, 9, 11; with St. Augustine expedition, 29; Yemassee, 32 Indian traders, 32, 52, 110 Indigo, 59, 70, 77, 102, 143 Irish colony, 55 Izard, Ralph, 137 Jacksonborough, 133 Jails, 83 Jamaica, 17, 28 James II, 23, 24 James Island, 145, 191, 199 Jasper, Sergeant, 99 Jenkins, Micah, 192 Jeter, Thos. B., 231 Johnson, David, 171 Johnson, J. M., 271, 283 Johnson, Robt., 36, 39, 46, 56, 89 Johnson, Sir Nathaniel, 29, 30 Jones, Wilie, 253 Judicial districts, 83 Keowee, 54, 61 Kershaw, Joseph B., 194 "King Cotton," 143, 232 Kirkland, Moses, 91, 92 Ku-Klux Klan, 220-222 Kyrle, Sir Richard, 22 Lacey, Edward, 118, 119 La Chere, 4, 5 Lafayette, Marquis de, 158, 274 Lancaster County, 112, 113, 175 Lander College, 249 Lander, Samuel, 250 Landgrave, 9 Laurens County, 117, 228 Laurens, Henry, 70, 95, 137 Laurens, John, 102, 134, 140 Lebby, Wm., 233 Lee, Charles, 97 Le Feboure, 29 Legare, Hugh Swinton, 173 Lewis, W. W., 281 Liberty tree, 81, 84 Library, free, 16, 73 Lien law, 231 Limestone College, 248 Lincoln, Benjamin, 103, 105 Lindo, Moses, 59 Little Carpenter, 60, 63, 66 Little Tennessee River, 61, 65 298 INDEX Long Canes, 64, 155 Long Island, 97 Lord Proprietors: ask aid against Yemassees, 34; break up Assembly, 45; Carolina given to, 7; change laws, 20; demand money for rent, 22, 24; equip ships, 9; fear king, 24; make laws, 8; names of, 7; Province taken away from, 48; quarrel with Yeamans, 12; Temporary Laws of, 1 1 ; their agents, 45 Low Country: Baptist churches in, 73; Harden fights British in, 125; in favor of United States Constitution, 144; planta- tion life described, 74, 147; settlements in, 49, 55; slave holders of, 147; wealth aids Revolution, 95 Lowndes, Rawlins, 101, 103, 156 Lowndes, William, 154, 156-157 Loyalists, 91, 94 Ludwell, Philip, 25 Lumber industry, 233 Lutheran church, 70, 72, 250 Lutheran Seminary, 250 Lynch, Thos., 79, 100 Lynch, Thos. Jr., 89, 100 Lynches River, 112 Lyttelton, Wm. Henry, 01, 63, 65 Mackey, E. W. M., 229 Mackey House, 229 Magrath, Andrew G., 211 Maham, Hezekiah, 126, 130 " Maham's Tower," 126, 128 Manigault, Gabriel, 70, 105 Manning, John L., 180 Manning, Richard I. (the elder), 160 Manning, Richard I. (the younger), 256 Marion, Francis, 62, 108, 120, 126, 129 Mason, Wm., 89 Mathews, John, 134, 135 Mayson, James, 90, 91 McCormick County, 67 McDonald, Adam, 89 McCully, Peter K., Jr., 281 McDonald, James, 89 McDuffie, Geo., 161, 167 McGowan, Samuel, 194, 200 Mcintosh, Alexander, 89 McSweeney, Miles B., 252 Means, John H., 178 Medical College of South Carolina, 246 Meriwether, McKie, 225 Methodist church, 152, 249 Middleton, Arthur, 50, 88, 100 Middleton, Henry, 86, 150 Militia: captured at Charles Town, 106 Colleton calls out, 24; drills, 76, 87 established, 19; fighting at Ninety-Six, 94 improved, 26; in Cherokee War, 62; in Yemassee War, 34; negro, 218; St. Augustine, 28 Miller, Stephen D., 160 Montagu, Lord Charles Greville, 80, 82, 84 Moore, James, 28 Moore, John, 47 Morgan, Daniel, 123 Morris Island, 197 Morton, Joseph, 19, 21, 23, 24 Moses, Franklin J., Jr., 222, 224 Motte, Charles, S9 Motte, Isaac, 89 Motte, Rebecca, 127 Motte's, 127 Moultrie, Wm., 62, 97, 133, 142 Naval stores, 233 Negro schools, 245 Negro troops, 273 Newberry College, 250 New Bordeaux, 67 Nicholson, Francis, 50 Ninety-Six, 65, 90, 128 Noble, Patrick, 167 Non-importation, 84, 86 North Island, 159 Nullification, 165 Oconee County, 54, 100, 133 Oconostota, 62 Oglethorpe, James Edward, 56 One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment, 270, 280 One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train, 271 One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment, 271 Oranfrcbiirgh, 72, 83, 103, 128 Oraniiflnu'i; County, 132 Oraugeljurgh township, 55 Orphanages, 138 Orr, James L., 212 O'Sullivan Riot, 13 Overseers, 146 Oyster Point, 12 Palmetto Regiment, 172 Palmetto Sharpshooters, 192 Parker, Thos., 34 Parker, Sir Peter, 97 Parliament, 9, 19, 21, 22 Part-is Island, 3 Partisans, 91 Patriots, 91 Patroon, 75 Peedee River, 55 Peedee section: British outrages in, 112, 117, 121; cotton manufacturing in, 145; Marion's camp in, 112; Marion fights in, 124; skirmishes in, 113; Tories subdued in, 133 Pelzer, Francis J., 233 Pelzer Manufacturing Co., 233 Phosphate mining, 234 Pickens, Andrew, 109, 123, 133 Pickens County, 100 Pickens, Francis W., 184, 190 Piedmont Manufacturing Co., 232 Piedmont section, 53, 67, 145 Pinckney, Charles, 87, 138, 142, 150 Pinckncy, Chas. Cotesworth, 88, 102, 153 Pinckney, Thos., 89, 138, 142, 154 Pirates: capture Wragg, 37; complained of, 19, 26; Daniell's hangs, 36; Edward Thatch, 37; encouraged by king, 18; end of danger from, 44; fight at Cape Fear, 38-40; fight near Charles Town, 42; Moody, 43; pardon offered to, 36; Richard Worley, 43; Stede Bonnet, 38-40 Pitt, Wm., 80 Plantations, Low-country, 74 INDEX 299 Pocotaligo, 125 Port Royal, 2, 21, 32, 56, 188 Presbyterian church, 58, 70, 72, 76, 152, 250 Presbyterian College, 250 Prison ships, 116, 137 Prohibition movement, 239, 256 Providence, Island of, 36 Provincial Congress, 87, 90, 95 Public hbrary, 26, 73 Public school system, 150, 243 Pulaski, Count, 102 Purry, John Peter, 55 Purrysburgh, 103 "Raid of the Dog Days," 130 Railways, 169, 231, 233 Ramsay, David, 116, 150 Rawdon, Lord, 114, 124, 131 Rawdontown, 127, 128 Read, Jacob, 137 Reconstruction, 210-229, 231 " Red shirts," 226 " Red sticks," 61 " Regulators," 76 "Renegades," 215 Revolutionary War, 95-136' Rhett, Alfred, 197 Rhett, Wm., 29, 38, 40 Ribault, Jean, 2, 6, 21, 32 Rice, gold, 25 Richardson, James B., 150 Richardson, John Peter (the elder), 167 Richardson, John Peter (the younger), 236 Richardson, Richard, 94 Ripley, Roswell S., 184 Road building, 19, 148, 157-158 Roberts, Owen, 89 Rutledge, Edward, 100, 116, 149 Rutlcdge, John, 79, 95 101, 106, 133, 142 Salley, 133 Saluda River, 112 Santee Canal, 149, 170 Santee River, 55, 149 Saunders, Roger Parker, 89 Savage, Nathan, 127 Sayle, William, 9, 10, 11 "Scalawags," 215 Schools, free, 30, 48, 72, 150 Schools, pay, 72 School system, public, 150, 232 Scotch colony, 21, 23, 28, 32 Scotch Irish, 67 Scott. Robert K., 217, 221 Scott, Wm., 89 Seabrook, Whitemarsh B., 178 Secret Committee, 88 Selective draft, the, 266 Settiquo, 60, 61 "Share cropping," 230 Simms, Wm. Gilmore, 173 (note) ; 205 Simpson, W. D., 231 Sims, James Marion, 175 Slavery: abolished in northern states, 161; affects admission of new states, 162-163, 176; after Revolution, 146; ended, 212; Southern feeling toward, 179; underground railroad, 177 Slaves, Indian, IS Slaves, negro, 10, 18, 57, 76, 107, 161, 168 Slave trade abolished, 141 Smith, Chas. A., 256 Smith, Thomas, 25 Smyth, Ellison A., 233 "Snow Camp," 94 Snowden, Mrs. M. A., 251 Snow Island, 112, 117, 123 Sothell, Seth, 24, 25 South Carolina University, 219 South Carolina College, 149, 173, 243 South Carolina Homespun Co., 145 South Carolina, State of: adopts U. S. Constitution, 141; builds roads and canals, 158; Constitutions for, 95, 101, 141, 151, 241; cotton manufacturing in, 145, 232; created, 95; during War of 1812, 154-155; first officers of, 95; military camps in, 266; opposes tariff, 141; Reconstruction in, 210-229; school system, 150-151; secedes from Union, 181; Senate, 101; Sherman's march through, 205; size of farms in, 144 South Seas, 7 Spartanburg, 222 Spartanburg County, 113 Springs, Holmes B., 281 St. Augustine, 6, 21, 35, 116 St. David's parish, 145 St. Helena Island, 14 St. Michael's church, 70, 182 St. PhiUp's church, 70, 197 Stamp Act, 78, 80, 86 Stamped paper, 79 Star of the West, 183 State Board of Education, 244 State Board of Public Welfare, 258 State Highway Department, 259 State Insane Asylum, 208, 218, 258 State Penitentiary, 257 State Sanitarium, 258 State Warehouse, 259 Stock law, 231 Stuart, John, 66, 92 Sullivan's Island, 13, 29, 98, 253 Summerland College, 250 Sumter, 160, 236 Sumter Light Infantry, 252 Sumter, Thomas, 109, 116, 121, 133, 141 Swiss colonies, 55 Tariff: helps New England, 141, 160; nullified, 165; of 1828, 160, 164; South Carolina opposes, 141, 160, 161 Tarleton, Colonel, 107, 116 Taylor, John, 160 Tea culture, 254 Temporary Laws, 11 Telliquo, 60, 61 Tennent, Wm. Henry, 91 "The Gamecock," 110, 117, 120 The South Carolina Gazette, 50, 145 "The Swamp Fox," 109 Theaters, 74 Thirtieth Division, 270 Thompson, Henry T., 252 Thompson, Hugh S., 234, 236 Thomson, Wm., 89, 94, 98 Thurber, John, 24 Tillman, Benjamin R., 237, 238 Tillman, James H., 253 300 INDEX Timrod, Henry, 174 Tobacco, 254 Tories, 91 Townships, 55 Trescot, Wm. Henry, 174 Trott, Chief Justice, 40, 44 Trucking industry, 254 Tynte, Edward, 30 Union, 221 Union County, 121 University of South Carolina, 237, 246 Up-Country: capital moved nearer to, 138; Cherokees kill settlers in, 61, 76, 133; churches in, 72, 76, 152; cotton grown in, 144, 147; cotton manufacturing in, 145, 232, 253; courts in, 83; described, 53; forts in, 61; growth of, 148; immigration to, 67; Loyalists active in, 91-94, 100; ministers teach children, 76; "Reguja- tors," 76; uses Santee Canal, 149; white men go to, 52 Vaccination, 150 VanderHorst, Arnoldus, 149 Villepigue, John C, 279 Waccamaw River, 55 Waddell, Moses, 155 Wallace House, 228 Wallace, Wm. H., 228 Wars: Barnwell's expedition, 31; of 1812, 153; Revolutionary, 95-135; St. Augus- tine expedition, 28; with Appalachians, 29; with Cherokees, 60-68, 90, 133; with Germany, 261-286; with Kussoes, 11; with Mexico, 171-173; with United States, 184-209; with Spain, 252; with Yemassees, 33-35 Washington, Geo., 90, 102, 131, 142 Washington, Wm., 121, 142 Watauga camp, 117 Wateree River, 55 Waxhaws, 107, 113, 124 West, Joseph, 9, 12, 15, 19, 22, 24 Weyman, Edward, 88 Weymys, Major, 121 Whipper, W. J., 224 Whitmarsh, Thomas, 56 Whitney, Eli, 143 Williams, David Rogerson, 1.54, 158 Williamsburg County, 117 Williamsburgh township, 55 Williamson, Andrew, 94, 100, 131 Willington, 155 Willtown church, 58 Wilson, John Lyde, 160 Winnsboro, 138, 208 Winthrop College, 247 Winyah Indigo Society, 72 Wofford, Benjamin, 249 WolTord College, 249 World War, 261-286 Wragg, Samuel, 37 Yeamans, Sir John, 9, 12 Yellow fever, 27, 29 York County, 118, 121, 222 6T0 «• 41931 s^^ -'-H^ \«^. v .<^' ''^.. . ■^v .i^% ' ^0O, '- o' ^■^ % „ .**:. ~,\ %/ x*' -^-i. -^' 0- -o, ■ .■- , A^■ - » 1 \ '' . - , V: s^'^ "'-^ .0 0^ .A' ^ \ 0' .0^ .x'^ ' A'^'^ ci^ x^ 'S' ./. .r -y ■/-_ '' '-'■r^ * - s o ' ^^^' ^^. ,<\^ .0- =^_.,-- .o ,. '1> =^'^' .n:> // C' .^^ ..\V • 0' ■^0^ "l'; ^ ^^.-. V^^ x^^.. -^ r^. --'. ' tf I V K. ■/' '' a"^' c % v^"^ ^ = ^>,,N^^ >0c> ■-y' ^^.. .^^ <!> "V. - o * , . --/- ' s " // ■>~«!. 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